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NHPRC Suspends Fellowships

Due to budgetary constraints, the NHPRC has decided to suspend the NHPRC Fellowships in Advanced Archival Administration and Historical Documentary Editing for 2001-2002. This decision appeared in all news releases regarding the Commission's most recent meeting in November 2000.

Please disregard the announcement "NHPRC Fellowship in Archival Administration" that was inadvertently published on page 31 of the January/February issue of Archival Outlook.

Thank you.

American Archivist Errata!

Please note the following correction to the spring/summer 2000 issue of the American Archivist (vol. 63, no. 1). The last sentence on page 124 should read:

"There is no room for playful or profound ambiguity in archival representations."

An errata sheet will be mailed to all SAA members and journal subscribers.

Thank you.
The Society of American Archivists

Hot Off the Press!

American Archival Studies: Readings in Theory and Practice
edited by Randall C. Jimerson

The 28 essays reprinted in this volume represent important recent American writings on archives and the role of archivists in modern society. They are collected here in order to make them more easily accessible to archival students and practicing archivists, indeed to anyone who wants to explore archival issues in greater detail than can be found in introductory texts. The articles—listed below—provide important perspectives both on basic elements of archival practice and on fundamental principles in archival theory and methodology.



American Archivists and the Search for Professional Identity
Randall C. Jimerson

Part One: Understanding Archives and Archivists


"Dear Mary Jane": Some Reflections on Being an Archivist
John A. Fleckner


To Remember and Forget: Archives, Memory and Culture
Kenneth E. Foote


The Symbolic Significance of Archives
James M. O'Toole


"Mind and Sight": Visual Literacy and the Archivist
Elisabeth Kaplan and Jeffrey Mifflin

Part Two: Archival History


Liberty, Equality, Posterity?: Some Archival Lessons From the Case of the French Revolution
Judith M. Panitch


The Provenance of a Profession: The Permanence of the Public Archives and Historical Manuscripts Traditions in American Archival History
Luke J. Gilliland-Swetland


The Blessings of Providence on an Association of Archivists
J. Frank Cook

Part Three: Selection and Documentation


At the "rim of creative dissatisfaction": Archivists and Acquisition Development
Timothy L. Ericson


Who Controls the Past
Helen Willa Samuels


The Documentation Strategy and Archival Appraisal Principles: A Different Perspective
Richard J. Cox

Part Four: Appraisal


On the Idea of Uniqueness
James M. O'Toole


Exploring the Black Box: The Appraisal of University Administrative Records
Frank Boles and Julia Marks Young


"The Surest Proof": A Utilitarian Approach to Appraisal
Mark Greene

Part Five: Arrangement and Description


The Power of the Principle of Provenance
David A. Bearman and Richard H. Lytle


Description and Reference in the Age of Automation
Avra Michelson


Descriptive Practices for Electronic Records:
Deciding What is Essential and Imagining What is Possible
Margaret Hedstrom


Encoded Archival Description: The Development of an Encoding Standard for Archival Finding Aids
Daniel V. Pitti

Part Six: Reference and Use of Archives


In the Eye of the Beholder: Archives Administration from the User's Point of View
Elsie T. Freeman


Facts and Frameworks: An Approach to Studying the Users of Archives
Paul Conway


Understanding Administrative Use and Users in University Archives
Elizabeth Yakel and Laura L. Bost

Part Seven: Preservation


On the Idea of Permanence
James M. O'Toole


Archival Preservation Practice in a Nationwide Context
Paul Conway


Preservation Re-Recording of Audio Recordings in Archives:
Problems, Priorities, Technologies, and Recommendations
Christopher Ann Paton

Part Eight: Electronic Records


Reinventing Archives for Electronic Records: Alternative Service Delivery Options
David Bearman and Margaret Hedstrom


Schellenberg in Cyberspace
Linda Henry


Digital Communications: Documentary Opportunities Not to Be Missed
Anne Gilliland-Swetland

Part Nine: Management


Redefining Archival Identity: Meeting User Needs in the Information Society
Randall C. Jimerson


Keepers, Users and Funders: Building an Awareness of Archival Value
John J. Grabowski


Randall C. Jimerson is associate professor of history and director of the graduate program in archives and records management at Western Washington University, Bellingham, Wash.

Publication Date: August 2000
656 pp., 6"x9" soft cover
$44.95 (SAA members $34.95)
ISBN 0-931828-41-4
Product code 395

TO ORDER, contact Rodney Franklin at:
or 312/922-0140
or SAA Publications, 527 S. Wells Street, 5th Floor, Chicago, IL 60607.

SAA 2000 Ballot Results:

Hensen is Next Vice President/President Elect

STEVEN L. HENSEN led the race to victory in the election for SAA's vice president. Hensen will begin his one-year term in August and become SAA's 57th president in 2001-2002. Hensen is the director of planning and project development at the Rare Book, Manuscript and Special Collections Library at Duke University, where he has served since 1986. He holds a B.A. and M.A. from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

A member of SAA since 1971, Hensen has served the association in a variety of capacities: on Council; part of the NHPRC-funded description curriculum revision project; Encoded Archival Description Working Group; Fellows' Posner Prize Committee; Nominating Committee; Editorial Board; Committee on Archival Information Exchange; and the Working Group on Standards for Archival Description. He was named an SAA Fellow in 1991.

Hensen is the author of the best-selling archival publication, Archives, Personal Papers and Manuscripts (SAA, 1989), for which he was awarded SAA's certificate of commendation for writing of superior excellence. He has also written more than 50 papers, articles and lectures in the area of archival description and standards and digitizing of archival materials. In 1998 he was a co-recipient of the C.F.W. Coker Award (as a member of the Bentley Finding Aid Project).

Candidates for vice president were required to answer the following question posed by the Nominating Committee:

"In this era of stagnant SAA membership and an increasingly compartmentalized profession, what would you like to see as the main accomplishments of SAA and the archival profession by 2005?"

In his response to the committee's question, Hensen stated that he is optimistic about the future of SAA and the profession in general. "As a profession, we are poised to assume our rightful and integral place in the burgeoning 21st-century world of information management and dissemination, and public awareness and appreciation of the profession is steadily increasing," Hensen said.

In terms of what he would like to see as the main accomplishments of SAA and the profession by 2005, Hensen advocates the following: "...leadership and staff increase their efforts to reach out to various student chapters. Somehow the inherent vitality and enthusiasm of these new archivists are not translating into professional identification through SAA membership. Second, I would work with the leadership to establish patterns of greater utilization of new and younger members in task force and committee appointments. Third, while one of the greatest strengths and successes of [SAA] over the past years has been in the associations it has built with allied organizations, more must be done in this regard; to the extent that we now have a higher public profile, it often has been through these relationships and the concomitant public alliances that have emerged...a more focused program on attracting new members...will stand us in good stead for the next few years. Finally, the efforts surrounding the development, promulgation, maintenance, and internationalization of EAD have brought [SAA] a great deal of respect and credibility and can provide a model for future efforts."

Dooley, Battle and Connors Join Council

SAA membership also elected Jackie M. Dooley, Thomas Battle and Thomas Connors to Council. Their three-year terms will begin this August following the conclusion of the 64th annual meeting in Denver and serve through the conference in 2003. They will succeed outgoing Council members Fynnette Eaton, Karen Jefferson and Helen Tibbo.

Candidates for Council were required to answer the same question posed by the Nominating Committee to the vice president/president elect: "In this era of stagnant SAA membership and an increasingly compartmentalized profession, what would you like to see as the main accomplishments of SAA and the archival profession by 2005?" Responses along with brief biographical sketches follow.

JACKIE M. DOOLEY is the head of special collections and university archives at the University of California, Irvine. She holds an M.L.S. from the University of California, Los Angeles and a B.A. from University of California, Irvine.

A member of SAA since 1987, Dooley has chaired the Program Committee, Publications Board, and Nominating Committee. She is a members of the Encoded Archival Description Working Group and is an EAD workshop instructor. In 1998 she was a co-recipient of the C.F.W. Coker Award (as a member of the Bentley Finding Aid Project). Dooley is the editor of the fast-selling Encoded Archival Description Application Guidelines Version 1.0 (SAA, 1999) and Encoded Archival Description: Context, Theory, and Case Studies (SAA, 1998).

Dooley's professional activities also include active participation in the American Library Association's ACRL Rare Books and Manuscripts Section, where she has served as chair, executive committee member, secretary, and on the editorial board.

In her candidate statement, Dooley asked, "How can we reach out to members of regional archival societies and groups, such as ACRL's Rare Books and Manuscripts Section, to ensure that professionals with other primary organizational allegiances are aware of the richness of SAA's offerings, such as publications, continuing education workshops and conferences? Can we do more to market our services and expertise to them, and possibly gain members in the process?"

Dooley further stated that "It is also important that SAA begin to look more seriously beyond our own national borders... Our national society must take a stronger leadership and participatory role internationally, encouraging U.S. archivists to understand the relevance of international professional affairs and creating opportunities for participation. In addition, I would like to see [SAA] develop and even greater commitment to development and promulgation of technical and descriptive standards than it has in the past...Successful deployment of new standards such as Encoded Archival Description, both nationally and internationally, will help archives become and even stronger presence in shared information systems such as the World Wide Web."

THOMAS BATTLE is the director of the Moorland-Springarn Research Center at Howard University, where he has worked since 1986. He holds a Ph.D. from George Washington University, M.L.S. from the University of Maryland at College Park, and B.A. from Howard University.

Battle has served SAA as chair of the Task Force on Minorities; chair of the Nominating Committee; Awards Committee co-chair; Committee on Goals and Priorities; co-chair of the Archives and Archivists of Color Roundtable; and member of the Publications Board. He is also active in MARAC and has served on the Advisory Board of the Cooperative Historically Black Colleges & Universities Archival Survey Project. The author of numerous articles and presenter of lectures and papers on archival development, he currently is editor-in-chief of HUArchivesNet, an electronic journal.

In his candidate statement, Battle noted that "Early archival development focused on the historical and intellectual value of documents and involved librarians and historians... Technical discussions now dominate our work instead of discussions about the content of our collections...In addition to improving the preparation of archivists and developing sound archival education guidelines and programs, I would hope to see a return to the discussion of research value and the utilization of collections."

THOMAS CONNORS has been archivist/curator of the National Public Broadcast Archives of the University of Maryland since 1993. He holds a B.A. in anthropology and M.A. in American civilization from Brown University.

He has served SAA as editor of the World View column in Archival Outlook; member and chair of the International Archival Affairs Committee and Roundtable; and member of the Program Committee and Labor Archives Roundtable. Other professional activities include membership in the Academy of Certified Archivists and MARAC. His articles have appeared in The Midwestern Archivist and The Public Historian.

In his candidate statement, Connors said that "First, SAA should use its legacy as the original national association for archivists to present the profession in all of its complexity and diversity back to professional archivists...Second, SAA should...speak out and lead on political and legislative issues affecting archivists...Third, SAA a stronger presence in the global archival community...Fourth, a stronger sense of organizational continuity will be needed in [SAA]"

Connors concluded that "These four points may or may not be realized in the next five years. As a member of Council I would work for their realization and would be keenly interested in other ideas that would help us sharpen the image of archivists and help [SAA] to be truly responsive to changes in the profession and to the professional needs of archivists."

Adkins Elected Treasurer

ELIZABETH ADKINS, manager of archives services at Ford Motor Company, was elected treasurer. She will begin a three-year term this August following the SAA annual meeting in Denver and serve through the conference in 2003. She will succeed outgoing treasurer Robert Sink.

Adkins holds an M.A. in history from Carnegie-Mellon University and a B.A. in history from SUNY-Binghamton. A co-instructor of the SAA Business Archives workshop, Adkins has also served on SAA's Program Committee, Committee on Public Information and has been chair of the Business Archives Section and the Acquisition and Appraisal Section. She is a past president of the Academy of Certified Archivists..

Candidates for treasurer were required to answer these questions posed by the Nominating Committee: "How would you balance the needs of the membership against the limited budget of SAA? How would you move beyond membership dues and locate other areas of possible revenue sources?"

In her response, Adkins noted that "Limited resources are a fact of life in SAA...I favor the idea of working through the sections to understand diverse interests of our members, and trying to address those interests by allocating a small budget to each section." In terms of locating other possible revenue sources, Adkins suggests that "One possibility is to intensify fundraising efforts for corporate and institutional support of SAA projects and programs, including the annual meeting." She further states that "We can also market SAA publications, workshops, and the annual meeting more aggressively to allied professions" as well as "vigorously marketing the annual giving campaign."

Neal, Anderson and Landis to Serve on Nominating Committee

The SAA election also yielded three members to serve on the 2001 Nominating Committee: Kathryn Neal, Joseph Anderson, and William E. Landis. The committee is responsible for identifying and selecting next year's slate of candidates as well as drafting questions posed to candidates. Two members of Council, appointed by the president, also serve on the committee.

All candidates for the Nominating Committee were required to respond to the following questions posed by this year's committee: "What kind of leaders will SAA need in the coming years? Based on your answer, how will you locate these leaders and ensure that they represent SAA's diverse membership?"

KATHRYN NEAL is the curator of the Givens Collection of African American Literature, Special Collections & Rare Books at the University of Minnesota Libraries. A 1994 recipient of the SAA Minority Student Award, she currently chairs the Archivists & Archives of Color Roundtable.

In her candidate statement, Neal stated that "SAA leaders need to possess... an ability to assess and respond to members' needs, an ability to represent SAA in a variety of arenas, a blend of vision and flexibility, and a sound knowledge of how the organization functions." Neal further noted that "Future leaders will need to pave the way toward creating an inclusive atmosphere for... diverse groups to thrive within the profession...A systematic method and creative committee members can easily produce a lengthy list of potential candidates. The greatest but not insurmountable challenge lies in persuading them to run."

JOSEPH ANDERSON is the head of the Niels Bohr Library & Archives and assistant director of the Center for the History of Physics, American Institute of Physics. A member of SAA since 1978, he is also active in the Academy of Certified Archivists and the Midwest Archives Conference.

In his candidate statement, Anderson noted that "the Nominating Committee has to be able to clearly articulate the traditional skills and new requirements for the positions being filled and make a persuasive case for the value and the professional benefits of seeking office in SAA." Anderson added that the committee has to "have a wide familiarity with the members of the profession and energetic networking skills. SAA's sections and roundtables remain one effective leadership ladder, allowing members to come to the attention of their fellows and be recruited for elective office."

WILLIAM E. LANDIS is the manuscripts librarian in special collections at the University of California, Irvine. He serves on the SAA Task Force on Continuing Education, vice chair of the Description Section and is a member of the EAD Working Group.

In his candidate statement, Landis asks, "How to find committed, willing, inventive, collaborative, industrious, fun archivists to run for SAA office who aren't already so oversubscribed in their lives to be immobilized? ...the Nominating Committee...need[s] to utilize colleagues and other contacts for ideas and feedback in assembling a slate of willing, eager volunteers who represent the diversity within SAA's membership and are willing to invest some of their precious time, for a year or for three years, in insuring that archivists in the U.S. continue to have an active, visible, inventive and responsive professional organization."

Adam's Mark Hotel Chain Settles Lawsuit

The Associated Press

WASHINGTON, March 21 — The Adam's Mark luxury hotel chain agreed today to pay $8 million, revise its policies and seek minority customers in settlements of racial discrimination lawsuits by the Justice Department, the state of Florida and a group of black guests.

The settlement includes $1.5 million for Florida to distribute to four historically black colleges in the state—Florida A&M University, Bethune-Cookman College, Edward Waters College and Florida Memorial College—for scholarships and internships in hotel management.

Attorney General Janet Reno told a news conference here that the agreements also will "ensure that every guest is treated equally and fairly." Joining her, Florida Attorney General Bob Butterworth said, "Adam's Mark chose to do the right thing."

Plaintiffs: We Had to Wear Wristbands

Last December, the Justice Department charged that the chain, which owns 21 full-service hotels in 13 states, charged black customers higher prices than whites and segregated them in less desirable rooms as part of a corporate pattern of discrimination. Florida alleged the chain violated state consumer-protection laws.

Earlier last year, five black vacationers brought a class action suit against the chain over the treatment of guests at last April's Black College Reunion weekend. They alleged the Adam's Mark in Daytona Beach, Fla., singled them out as security risks and made them, but not white guests, wear bright orange wristbands to get into the hotel.

Under the agreement to settle the lawsuits, the chain will provide $4.4 million for black guests and visitors to the hotel during that weekend. Their attorney estimated that there were 1,200 guests and an undetermined numbers of their visitors. The five original plaintiffs will each get $25,000.

In addition, the chain agreed to pay $112,000 to the four black Florida colleges to coordinate and promote the annual Black College Reunion over the next three years.

The remainder of the settlement will pay legal fees and the costs of administering the payments to members of the class.

Hotel Agrees to Outside Monitoring

Although the hotel chain did not admit wrongdoing, its president, Fred Kummer, said in St. Louis, "We are willing to take these extra steps to demonstrate ... that we are absolutely committed to diversity and equality."

"While Adam's Mark ... has never intentionally done anything wrong, we apologize for any actions that may have made any of our guests feel uncomfortable or unwelcome."

Adam's Mark also agreed to hire an outside monitor, Project Equality of Kansas City, Mo., to investigate any complaints by guests, to design nondiscrimination training for all hotel employees, to test the hotels' compliance annually and to design a marketing plan to attract black guests to the chain.

See also:

Update on the Adam's Mark Hotel from SAA President Hickerson (March)
President H. Thomas Hickerson Re: Adam's Mark Hotel Chain (February)
Council Resolution Regarding Adam's Mark Hotel Chain (January)

2000-2001 SAA Membership Directory Begins Production

Individual and institutional members of SAA will be receiving a postcard in April showing each member's current contact and mailing information as listed in the SAA database. Members are requested to verify the information listed, indicate any changes, and return the postcard to SAA by April 24. Once all corrections have been implemented, production on the 2000-2001 SAA Membership Directory will begin. Printing and distribution are slated for this summer.

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