Standards for Archival Description: A Handbook
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CHAPTER 9: EDITING AND PUBLISHING


Standards governing editing and publishing practices are included in this handbook because many repositories still produce significant numbers of finding aids and other descriptive materials in print form. The rapid spread of automation and access to bibliographic networks may have placed online information retrieval systems at the heart of many descriptive systems. But it also introduced desktop publishing that has enabled many repositories to become self-publishers of guides, inventories, and newsletters.

Archivists have several advantages to gain by adhering to the various standards presented in this chapter. Some simply represent basic tools of the trade, such as the proofreading and indexing conventions and the style manuals. Anyone setting out on a publication project would do well to benefit from the years of experience and commonly developed practices that they incorporate. Others can save time and effort by laying out specifications for the basic elements of a publication such as what information should be included on title pages or book spines and in what format. If proper procedures for ISBNs, ISSNs, and cataloging in publication data are followed, accessibility to information about archival collections should be enhanced because the publications describing them will be easier for users to acquire and librarians to catalog.

Many of these standards are classic in the sense that they are invisible unless they are absent. For instance, it probably would not occur to most readers that there is a widely used standard for how information about the author, book title, and publisher is to be presented on book spines. The U.S. and international standards both specify that titles running longitudinally should be read from top to bottom, which is why most titles books on your shelves can be scanned with relative ease. We have probably all had the jarring experience of acquiring a non-standard book with a title running from bottom to top and may have shelved it upside down so that it conformed to the others in our collections.

Some standards falling within this group have had more promise than effect. NISO issued a standard for bibliographic references, Z39.29, in 1977 but it went largely unused in favor of the instructions for bibliographic entries contained in the better known and more accessible Chicago Manual of Style.1 NISO is in the process of preparing a revised standard.

The style manuals which comprise the first two entries in this chapter are not true consensus standards in that they were not developed by groups agreeing on common practices, but they have received such broad acceptance that they have become de facto standards. The first style manual appeared the early 17th century and more than 250 English-language style and reference manuals were published between 1970 and 1983.2 The one that dominates usage in the humanities and social sciences, including writings in the fields of archives and history, is the Chicago Manual of Style. Style for federal government publications, however, is established in the GPO Style Manual whose rules are also followed by many state and local governments for their publications.

It might be useful to note that, for "general matters of spelling, the Chicago Manual recommends Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam, 1964) or its chief abridgement, Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (also G. & C. Merriam). When the two disagree, the Collegiate should be followed "since it is revised more frequently and represents the latest lexical research."3

For the sake of brevity, when there are both international and U.S. national standards for a specific practice, only the U.S. versions are given full entries in this chapter. They are national implementations of the international standards and designate proper applications of the practices within the U.S. publishing and library communities. The equivalent or related international standards are noted in every case; most of them are also published in the ISO Standards Handbook 1: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 1988).

Anyone considering electronic publishing should be aware that "the directors of the registration authorities for the ISBN (ISO 2108) and the ISSN (ISO 3297) have been asked to draft guidelines for the application of the ISBN systems and the ISSN to electronic information products." Draft guidelines are expected in 1993.4

Readers should be aware of a standard publishing-related practice required by ANSI Z39.15, Title Leaves of a Book, but not represented by an independent standard document per se. Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Data has been available from the Library of Congress since 1971. Under this program, publishers submit manuscripts or galleys to the CIP Division shortly before publication. LC cataloging staff then performs descriptive cataloging, subject analysis, and classification, and assigns full LC and Dewey Decimal Classification numbers for the publication based on the prepublication manuscript. Within about two weeks, the CIP staff returns the completed cataloging copy to the publisher who then prints it exactly as prepared by LC on the same page as copyright information appears. At the same time, LC distributes the data in machine-readable form to librarians and book vendors and to the bibliographic networks. As with other standards in this chapter, CIP data facilitates both acquisition and cataloging of published materials and thereby promotes the accessibility of the information they contain.5 CIP forms can be obtained from Cataloging in Publication Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540.

Finally, standards governing the physical aspects of the media on which publications appear are beyond the scope of this handbook. They are nonetheless noteworthy, especially the recently approved ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992, Permanence of Paper for Publications and Documents in Libraries and Archives. NISO is also considering format standards for CD-ROM. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the Technical Association for the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) also produce paper standards, while ANSI's Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X3 on Information Processing and the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) deal with electronic media of all kinds.6

One of the most dominant standards in the U.S. publishing industry today is an implementation of ISO 8879:1976, Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1988, Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup, is so widely supported that it is known as the "AAP Standard" after the American Association of Publishers which developed and maintains it. Walt Crawford notes that "many of us who work with modern word processing and desktop publishing programs are already quite familiar with the concept behind SGML."7 Those using style sheets have become quite used to tagging parts of their documents so that all section titles and running heads appear uniform in the final printout. It does not appear, however, that any of the current versions (early 1993) of the major software packages explicitly implement SGML or provide for SGML conversion.

Further reading

Bakewell, Ken. "Toward a New International Standard on Indexing." The Indexer 17 (October 1990): 127-128.

Bellardo, Trudi. Subject Indexing: An Introductory Guide. Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, 1991.

Borko, Harold, and Charles L. Bernier. Indexing Concepts and Methods. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Crawford, Walt. Desktop Publishing for Librarians. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1990.

Hoover, Clara. "Style Manuals: A Bibliography." Booklist (April 1, 1991): 1586-1588.

Howell, John Bruce. Style Manuals of the English-Speaking World: A Guide. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1983.

Lancaster, F. W. Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice. Champaign: University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1991.

Spring, Michael B. Electronic Printing and Publishing: The Document Processing Revolution. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991.

Wellisch, Hans. Indexing: A Basic Reading List. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Society of Indexers, 1992.

Wellisch, Hans. Indexing from A to Z. Bronx, NY: H.W. Wilson, 1991.


The Chicago Manual of Style

14th ed., 1993.
Hardcover (ix + 921 p.). ISBN 0-226-10389-7.
Available from University of Chicago Press. $40.00.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Compiled and maintained by editors at the University of Chicago Press.

Scope and structure:

First published in 1906, this has become the dominant style manual for the humanities and social sciences in the U.S. The editors of the thirteenth edition acknowledged that it had become "much more a 'how-to' book for authors and editors" than were earlier versions, which focused more on the original intent to provide a printer's guide.

It contains three major parts: Bookmaking, Style, and Production and Printing, plus a glossary of technical terms, bibliography, and detailed index. The Style sections comprise well over half the volume and contain extensive examples and illustrations. This may be one of the few standards described in this handbook that is available at your local bookstore.

Related standards:

Guidelines for the preparation of manuscripts on disk or tape for electronic typesetting are provided in Chicago Guide to Preparing Electronic Manuscripts: For Authors and Publishers (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987). 143 p. Hardcover $25.00; paper $9.95.

Archival applications:

Adopted as the standard for style and footnote formatting by the American Archivist, Archival Issues (formerly the Midwestern Archivist), and most other journals that carry archival literature. Archivists and manuscript curators also should have a special interest in reviewing sections 15.270-15.292 and 16.131-16.138, which provide guidance for construction of footnotes and bibliographic references for unpublished materials (including manuscript collections, interviews, and letters), and sections 15.322-15.411 and 16.148-16.198, which do the same for public documents from federal, state, and local governments. Section 15.278 actually quotes general instructions given in the introduction to the 1974 Guide to the National Archives of the United States for citations to archives.

References:

Hagler, Ronald. The Bibliographic Record and Information Technology. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1991, 222.

Hoover, Clara. "Style Manuals: A Bibliography." Booklist (April 1, 1991): 1586-1588.


Government Printing Office Style Manual

28th ed., 1984.
Cloth (ix + 479 p.). S/N 021-000-00121-0, $15.00.
Paper, S/N 012-000-00120-1, $11.00.
Available from USGPO.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Developed and maintained by the U.S. Government Printing Office. Issued by the Public Printer under authorization of Section 1105 of an Act of Congress approved 22 October 1968.

Scope and structure:

Intended primarily as a printer's manual, the GPO Style Manual is "designed to achieve uniform word and type treatment and economy of word use in the form and style of government printing." A companion, the Word Division Supplement, "serves as a quick reference guide for finding correct word divisions as well as a spelling and punctuation guide" (Paper, 144 p., S/N 021-000-00139-2, $1.50).

Archival applications:

Archivists working in government settings, especially at the federal level, will probably need to use the GPO Style Manual for their official publications.

Alternate format:

Also available on floppy disk as an IBM-compatible hypertext program, GPO Style: U.S. GPO Style Manual from Sageline (1989).

References:

Hoover, Clara. "Style Manuals: A Bibliography." Booklist (April 1, 1991): 1586-1588.


ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1988
Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup

1988.
Paper (158 p.). ISBN 0-88738-945-7. LC 91-8964.
Available from NISO. $75.00.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Z39.59 is the result of the Electronic Manuscript Project, 1983-86, which was sponsored by the Association of American Publishers (AAP) and cosponsored by the Council on Library Resources. The standard was processed and approved by NISO for submission to ANSI; ANSI approved the standard on 1 December 1988. The maintenance agency for this standard is the Electronic Publishing Special Interest Group (EPSIG). EPSIG is operated by the AAP.

Scope and structure:

This standard is the first application of the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 8879:1986, Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), to be adopted industry-wide by the U.S. publishing community. The publishing industry in the U.S. has embraced SGML, evidenced by the frequent references to Z39.59 as "the AAP standard." The U.S. Treasury Department has also adopted SGML for document interchange, although the primary U.S. government publisher, the Government Printing Office, has set out to develop its own markup language.

Related standards:

ISO 12083:1993, developed by ISO Technical Committee 46, is based on ANSI/NISO Z39.59 and defines 3 document types: books, articles, and serials.

Auxiliary tools/application guidelines:

Several companion guidelines have been prepared to assist users of the standard, including an author's guide and instructions on the markup of mathematical formulas and tabular material, all available from EPSIG. Also available from the American Society of Indexers is Hugh Maddocks, Generic Markup of Electronic Index Manuscripts ($15.00 for nonmembers).

References:

Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 273-275.

Kiser, Betsy. "ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1988 Maintenance Agency Report." Information Standards Quarterly 3 (October 1991): 9-10.

Reynolds, L.R., and S.J. Derose. "Electronic Books." Byte 17 (June 1992): 263-268.


ANSI/NISO Z39.21-1988
Book Numbering

1988.
Paper (6 p.). ISBN 0-88738-951-1. LC 89-20141.
Available from NISO. $30.00


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Prepared by Standards Committee JJ of the National Information Standards Organization which was organized in 1986. Approved by ANSI on 4 November 1988. Coordination of the ISBN system at the international level rests with an independent agency in Germany, the International Standard Book Numbering Agency. Each participating country designates its own agency for implementation of the standard, which in most cases is the national library. In the U.S., however, ISBN functions are performed by the R.R. Bowker Company through the ISBN United States Agency, 121 Chanlon Road, New Providence, NJ 07974.

Scope and structure:

The first standard book number was developed by British publishers in the mid-1960s and it quickly evolved into the now ubiquitous International Standard Book Number (ISBN).

The original 1973 version of Z39.21 focused primarily on publications in book form, but the 1988 revision broadened its scope to cover other kinds of monographs, including microcomputer software and other nonprint publications.

ISBNs are intended to identify uniquely each form of a publication to facilitate publisher's inventory and invoicing functions. ISBNs consist of 10 digits arranged in four segments with hyphens between each segment. The first two segments are used to identify the publisher, the third identifies the publication, and the fourth is a check digit to ensure that the other nine digits have been transcribed correctly.

Archival applications:

Repositories that serve as their own publishers for finding aids, documentary editions, or anything else eligible for an ISBN should obtain the proper publisher's code from Bowker (see address above) and assign individual ISBNs to their publications. This ensures that the works will be listed in Books in Print and will facilitate broader availability of archival source material.

Related standards:

Z39.21-1988 is based on and is the U.S. implementation of ISO 2108:1978, Documentation--International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN). The third edition of the ISO standard was developed by ISO Technical Committee 46 and approved in 1992. Available from ANSI. Paper (3 p.). $22.00.

References:

Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 223-224.

Hagler, Ronald. The Bibliographic Record and Information Technology. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1991, 55-56.

Tannehill, Robert S., and Charles W. Husbands. "Standards and Bibliographic Data Representation." Library Trends 31 (Fall 1982): 290-292.


ANSI/NISO Z39.9-1992
International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN)

1992.
Paper (xi + 7 p.). ISBN 0-88738-941-4.
Available from NISO. $20.00.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

The original version of this standard was prepared by American National Standards Committee on Standardization in the Field of Library Work, Documentation, and Related Publishing Practices, Z39, Subcommittee 20 on Standard Serial Numbers, which was organized in May 1968. It was approved by American National Standards Institute on 9 February 1979. Mary Sauer revised it during its five-year review to bring it into conformance with ISO 3297. The latest revision was developed by Julia Blixrud, head, National Serials Data Program, Library of Congress, in response to comments received on earlier editions and 1991 discussions held by directors of the International Serials Data System. It was approved by NISO members in 1991 and by ANSI on 20 January 1992.

The National Information Standards Organization (Z39) has maintenance responsibility for Z39.9, but the implementation of the ISSN system (i.e., assignment of specific ISSNs) in the U.S. rests with the National Serials Data Program (NSDP) at the Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20450. Coordination at the international level rests with the International Serials Data System Centre, located in Paris, and which operates within the Unesco/UNISIST framework.

Scope and structure:

International Standard Serial Numbers (ISSNs) are used to uniquely identify serials, defined in the standard as "publication[s] in print or in nonprint form, issued in successive parts, usually having numerical or chronological designations, and intended to be continued indefinitely." The revision approved in 1991 has deleted "in print or nonprint form" in order to provide maximum flexibility. By 1992 LC reported having assigned ISSNs to more than 100,000 U.S. serials, of which almost 200 were CD ROM or electronic journal titles.8

The standard provides specifications for ISSNs which are composed of seven decimal digits plus a check digit. The digits are arranged in two groups of four separated by a hyphen; the last digit in the second group is the check digit. Unlike ISBNs in which the digits carry some meaning (the first being the language group and the first two together designating the publisher), the numbers in the ISSN carry no meaning. Thus, two publications bearing sequential ISSNs do not necessarily have any relationship to one another. A new ISSN is assigned whenever a serial's title changes.

Appendixes to Z39.9-1992 explain procedures for calculating the check digit, outline the structure and function of the International Serials Data System, and provide contact information for the maintenance agency.

Related standards:

Z39.9 is the U.S. implementation of ISO 3297:1986, Documentation--International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN) which was developed by ISO Technical Committee 46. Paper (4 p.). Available from ANSI. $22.00. Also published in ISO Standards Handbook 1: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO, 1988): 566-569.

Z39.9-1992 is a revision of Z39.9-1971 which provided the basis for developing the original 1975 version of the international standard. The 1986 version of ISO 3297 is somewhat more detailed than Z39.9 and contains an "annex" listing the common set of data elements maintained by all serial data centers worldwide.

Archival applications:

Any repository issuing newsletters or similar serial publications should obtain ISSNs for them. In addition, it is possible that the ISSNs might become a valuable retrieval data element in descriptive systems when archival collections contain a significant volume of serials, such as corporate newsletters or other kinds of regular, periodic reports.

References:

Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 204-205.

Hagler, Ronald. The Bibliographic Record and Information Technology. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1991, 55-56.

"International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)." Information Standards Quarterly 3 (April 1991): 21.

Tannehill, Robert S., and Charles W. Husbands. "Standards and Bibliographic Data Representation." Library Trends 31 (Fall 1982): 290-292.


ANSI/NISO Z39.41-1990
Printed Information on Spines

1990.
Paper (8 p.). ISBN 0-88738-944-9. LC 90-20483.
Available from NISO. $20.00.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Original version issued in 1979. "This revision was prepared by Robert S. Tannehill, Jr. (Manager, Library Services, Chemical Abstracts Service) and is based on the comments and suggestions provided by the NISO voting members and other interested parties." Revision approved by ANSI on 5 July 1990. NISO has maintenance responsibility.

Scope and structure:

The underlying purpose of this standard is to ensure that libraries have room to place "local data" (typically the classification numbers used to locate books on shelves) on the spines of books. The revision extends the standard to apply to nonbook materials like cassettes, diskettes, CD-ROM, and microforms.

The standard establishes three segments on a book spine from the bottom up: a publisher identification area, a library identification area, and a bibliographic identification area. Publishers are assigned the bottom 1.5 inches (40 mm) for such items as their names, logos, or catalog numbers. The next 1.5 inches are supposed to be left blank for use by libraries. The remaining information--the things readers expect to see on spines like authors' names, book titles, volume or edition numbers--are allocated to the space above the bottom 3 inches, an area which obviously can vary considerably in size depending on the height of the volume.

The standard also addresses the orientation of the title. Descending-spine titles "are oriented from left to right when the work is lying flat, front cover uppermost." Specifications are also provided for edge titles (when spines are too narrow to accommodate the title), pillar-spine titles (where each character is upright, one underneath the other, from top to bottom), and transverse-spine titles (where the words run at a right angle to the long edge of the spine).

While this standard is fairly straightforward and brief, Crawford notes that the 3-inch allowance might be difficult to comply with, especially on smaller format volumes.

Related standards:

The international equivalent is ISO 6357:1985, Documentation--Spine titles on books and other publications developed by ISO Technical Committee 46. However, the international version sets aside only the bottom 30 mm for the library identification field. Available from ANSI. Paper (3 p.). $22.00. Also published in ISO Standards Handbook 1: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO, 1988), 670-672.

References:

Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 247-248.


ANSI Z39.15-1980
Title Leaves of a Book

1980.
Paper (8 p.). ISBN 0-88738-986-4.
Out of print.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

The original version of Z39.15 was issued in 1971. A revised version was prepared by Subcommittee 21 of the American National Standards Committee on Library Work, Documentation, and Related Publishing Practices, Z39, and approved by ANSI on 2 November 1979. Although balloted for reaffirmation in 1986, Crawford notes that the "(R1986)" designation does not appear on any published version of the standard and that no report on the results of the ballot ever appeared in the Voice of Z39 (the predecessor to NISO's Information Standards Quarterly). Having exceeded its 10-year review limit, the standard has been administratively withdrawn by ANSI and is no longer in print. NISO does not intend to revise this standard.

Scope and structure:

This brief, straightforward standard specifies what should appear on half title leaves, title pages, and the verso of title leaves and, in some cases, how it should be displayed. Data on the title page are to include the title of the book; names of the author, other contributors, and publisher, place and year of publication, and volume number (in arabic numerals) if it is a multi-volume work. The verso or copyright page should include the copyright notice, edition and impression data, cataloging in publication data (obtained from the Library of Congress), ISBN, LC catalog card number, the publisher's complete corporate address, and an abstract of the contents of the publication.

The standard has been accepted widely by publishers in the U.S. with some exceptions noted by Crawford. Date of publication is supposed to appear on the title page itself but often appears only on its verso (the copyright page). Also, few publishers have followed the requirement to include an abstract of the publication with the exception of those who produce textbooks.

Related standards:

The original version of Z39.15 was based on ISO Recommendation R1086:1969, Title-Leaves of a Book and the Draft British Standard Specification for the Title Leaves of a Book (circulated in 1969). The 1980 revision added requirements relating to cataloging in publication data and copyright information.

The current international equivalent is ISO 1086:1991, Information and documentation--Title leaves of a book developed by ISO Technical Committee 46. Paper (2 p.). Available from ANSI. $25.00. The 1978 version of ISO 1086 was published in ISO Standards Handbook 1: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO, 1988): 491-492.

References:

Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 212-213.


ANSI/NISO Z39.22-1989
Proof Corrections

1989.
Paper (28 p.). ISBN 0-88738-949-X. LC 90-10954.
Available from NISO. $30.00


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Original version issued in 1981. This revision "was prepared by Dr. Hans Wellisch and incorporates the comments and suggestions offered by many of NISO's Voting Members and members of the publishing industry." Revision approved by ANSI on 18 September 1989. NISO has maintenance responsibility.

Scope and structure:

This standard designates the symbols to be used during proofreading, i.e., the process of reading typeset copy to ensure that it matches exactly the manuscript from which it was composed. It draws a sharp distinction between this process and that of copy reading (also called copy editing or manuscript editing). The symbols presented here are not intended for use during the editorial stages in which corrections in spelling, capitalization, and usage are made in the author's text.

Keeping that distinction in mind, Z39.22 specifies that all corrections be indicated twice, first within the line showing where the changes must be made and again in the margin so the compositor can scan the proofs quickly to locate lines needing changes. Following brief explanations of how to apply the symbols, the bulk of the standard is presented in tabular form with actual renderings of the marginal and inline marks, their meanings, and examples of usage.

Crawford notes that "proofreaders' marks have been relatively stable for some time, and are included (to some extent) in a number of style manuals and other publications. This separate publication is a handy reference and a careful exposition of proper technique for marking proofs; it should be useful for any author who reads proofs."

References:

Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 224-225.


ANSI Z39.4-1984
Basic Criteria for Indexes

1984.
Paper (24 p.). ISBN 0-88738-997-X. LC 84-6173.
Available from NISO. $14.00.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Original version was approved in 1968 and reaffirmed in 1974. The 1984 revision was prepared by American National Standards Committee on Library and Information Sciences and Related Publishing Practices, Z39, Subcommittee K on Indexes and approved by ANSI on 2 December 1983. NISO has maintenance responsibility. A major revision entitled "Guidelines for Indexes and Related Information Retrieval Devices" was circulated for balloting November 1993-January 1994.

Scope and structure:

This document presents a good summary of the technical and conceptual considerations encountered in preparing an index of any kind, whether the traditional back-of-the-book version or one that is accessed through a machine-mediated search. Opening with a list of definitions and a discussion of the functions and types of indexes, it goes on to provide specific recommendations about "the preparation, organization, and style of indexes in general."

Z39.4 includes guidance on alphanumeric arrangement of entries, use of controlled vocabularies, coordinated terms, singular and plural forms, and inversion of multiword entries. A section on syndetic structure discusses common cross reference techniques and the use of tracings and scope notes. A physical format section reviews the various options for indentation, punctuation, and spacing, and outlines issues to consider if the index is to be reproduced in microform, electronic media, or in a database. A bibliography provides a list of source materials and textbooks on indexing.

The original draft of the 1993 revision was modeled on the draft revision of ISO 999, Guidelines for the content, organization, and presentation of indexes, but the NISO committee now believes that the ISO draft focuses too narrowly on print indexes and human indexing. The NISO proposed revision "is more complicated than previous standards for indexes because it attempts to address every kind of index used for information retrieval regardless of documentary units and media, method of index compilation (e.g., by computer algorithm or human intellectual analysis), kind of index language, indexing media display, and search options or procedures."9

Related standards:

The related international standard, ISO 999-1975, Documentation--Index of a publication, is much less detailed. Developed by ISO Technical Committee 46. Paper (2 p.). Available from ANSI. Price Code A. Also published in ISO Standards Handbook 1: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Switzerland: ISO, 1988): 487-488.

Archival applications:

The guidelines presented in the proposed revision circulated in 1993-1994 cover all forms of indexing, from back of the book indexes to on-line retrieval systems. They allow for indexes to documents themselves (pages in a book, books in a library) as well as "document surrogates" (abstracts in databases and, by logical extension, series or collection descriptions in an archival inventory).

The index to this handbook which starts on p. 287, follows the guidelines in the proposed revision as closely as possible.

References:

Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 195-197.

"Standards Being Revised." Information Standards Quarterly 3 (April 1991): 21.


ALSO OF INTEREST

Arranged by topic in same order as main entries in the chapter.

Style manuals and guides

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 3rd ed., 1988. Joseph Gibaldi and Walter S. Achtert; Modern Language Association. Paper (248 p.). ISBN 0-87352-379-2. Available from the Modern Language Association. $9.95.

Library Automation Style Guide. October 1991. Gaylord Information Systems. Pamphlet (16 p.). Available from Gaylord. Free.

Publication formats and identification data

ANSI Z39.18-1987. Scientific and Technical Reports--Organization, Preparation, and Production. NISO. Paper. ISBN 0-88738-984-8. Available from NISO. $26.00.

ANSI/NISO Z39.23-1983. Standard Technical Report Number (STRN), Format and Creation. NISO. Paper. ISBN 0-88738-946-5. Available from NISO. $20.00.

ANSI/NISO Z39.56-1991. Serial Issue and Contribution Identifier. NISO. Paper. ISBN 0-88738-943-0. Available from NISO. $40.00.

ISO 690:1987. Documentation--Bibliographic references--Content, form and structure. ISO Technical Committee 46. Paper (11 p.). Available from ANSI. $33.00.

ISO 832:1975. Documentation--Bibliographic references--Abbreviations of typical words. ISO Technical Committee 46. Paper (38 p.). Available from ANSI. $62.00.

ISO 999:1975. Documentation--Index of a publication. ISO Technical Committee 46. A Committee Draft (CD) of the revision, entitled Guidelines for the preparation of indexes to books, periodicals, and other documents, is Available from NISO.

ISO 3901:1986. Documentation--International Standard Recording Code (ISRC). ISO Technical Committee 46. Paper (4 p.). Available from ANSI. $22.00. Also published in ISO Standards Handbook 1: Documentation and Information, 3rd ed. (Geneva, Switzerland: International Organizations for Standardization, 1988), 570-573.

ISO/CD 10956. Documentation--Bibliographic references--Electronic documents or parts thereof. ISO Technical Committee 46. Draft Available from NISO.

The Complete Guide to Citing Government Publications: A Manual for Writers and Librarians. 1984. Diane L. Garner and Diane H. Smith; American Library Association, Government Documents Round Table. Paper (142 p.). ISBN 0-88692-023-X. Available from the Congressional Information Service. $12.95.

"Guidelines for State Documents Checklists." 1982. American Library Association, Government Documents Round Table. Paper (5 p.). Available from ALA. Free of charge. Also published in Margaret Lane, Selecting and Organizing State Government Publications (Chicago: ALA, 1987).

Editorial practices

ISO 10445:1993. Information and documentation--Preparation of manuscripts or computerscripts. ISO Technical Committee 46. Available from ANSI. Price to be announced.

"Statement on Plagiarism." 1989. American Historical Association [part of the AHA Statement of Professional Conduct]. Article (2 p.). Published in Perspectives: Newsletter of the American Historical Association (Jan 1989): 20-21.

"Guidelines for Authors, Editors and Publishers of Literature in the Library and Information Field." 1983. American Library Association. Paper (4 p.). Available from ALA. Free.

"Guidelines for Editorial Procedures and Practices." 1988. Conference of Historical Journals. (3 p.). Published in Perspectives: Newsletter of the American Historical Association (May/June 1988): 2-4

"Guidelines for Editors of Historical and Genealogical Bulletins and Family Newsletters." 1986. American Library Association, Reference and Adult Services Division. Paper (2 p.). Published in RQ (Winter 1986): 165-166.

Guidelines for Journal Editors and Contributors. 1984. Modern Language Association, Conference of Editors of Learned Society Journals. (19 p.) Available from MLA. ISBN 0-87352-117-X. LC 84-6684. $7.50.

"Guidelines for Reprinting or Republishing Books of Historical Interest." 1984. American Library Association, Reference and Adult Services Division. Paper (2 p.). Published in RQ (Fall 1984): 33-34.

"Guidelines for the Preparation of a Bibliography." 1982. American Library Association, Reference and Adult Services Division. Paper (4 p.). Available from ALA. $1.00.


Footnotes

1 Walt Crawford, Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians 2nd ed. (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991), 233-236.

2 John Bruce Howell, Style Manuals of the English-Speaking World: A Guide (Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1983), cited in Ronald Hagler, The Bibliographic Record and Information Technology, 2nd ed. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1991), 223.

3 The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 194.

4 Pat Harris, "SC9: Presentation, Identification, and Description of Documents," Information Standards Quarterly 4 (Summer 1992): 4.

5 "Cataloging in Publication," Cataloging Service Bulletin 53 (Summer 1991): 15-16. CIP procedures are also summarized in Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 9-10.

6 Many of these standards and the organizations that development them are discussed in Victoria Irons Walch, "Checklist of Standards Applicable to the Preservation of Archives and Manuscripts," American Archivist 53 (Spring 1990): 324-338.

7 Walt Crawford, Technical Standards, 273-275.

8 "Serial Records Division," LC Information Bulletin (July 13, 1992): 318-319.

9 James Anderson, "NISO Committee on Standards for Indexes Prepares Second Draft," Information Standards Quarterly 4 (Summer 1992): 32-33.



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