Standards for Archival Description: A Handbook
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CHAPTER 4: CATALOGING RULES (Data Content Standards)


The communication formats (data structure standards) covered in Chapter 3 and the cataloging manuals (data content standards) described here truly go together like "hand and glove." The formats in Chapter 3 define the structures of the "containers" that carry information about institutions and their holdings, specifically the various USMARC formats. The manuals described here contain the rules for their contents, that is for how, where, and why to enter information into specific parts of the catalog records created according to the USMARC structures.

The USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data (USBD) is the principal book-oriented data structure, and the rules for creating catalog records for books within that structure are contained in the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., revised (1988). The parallel set of structure and content standards used for archival materials are the USMARC AMC Format and Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts (APPM). For archival graphics collections described separately rather than as parts of mixed media collections, many use another set, the USMARC VM Format and Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections (GIHC).

Evolution of library cataloging rules

The codification of library cataloging rules can be traced back to Charles Cutter who published Rules for a Dictionary Catalog in 1876.1 Cutter's rules became a fundamental source of practice for the entire English-speaking world. Their international applicability was further reinforced in 1908 when a cooperative effort between catalogers in the United States and the United Kingdom resulted in a so-called "Joint Code of 1908." The code was largely based on the Library of Congress' adaptations of Cutter's rules. LC continued to update the rules in-house, but when revisions were published in 1941 and 1949, they had to be compiled without direct involvement from the British, preoccupied at the time with war, and so were only adopted widely in North America.

The most sweeping reform of cataloging practices resulted from a major initiative in October 1961 by the International Federation of Library Agencies and Institutions (IFLA). That year, IFLA convened experts from the U.S., U.K., France, Germany, and other countries at the International Conference on Cataloguing Principles in Paris. They drafted the twelve "Paris Principles" that provided the foundation for the first edition of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules which was published in 1967.2 Catalogers in many other countries have directly translated or adapted rules in AACR and its subsequent revisions for use in their own languages.

In 1971 IFLA published the first preliminary version of its International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), which applied only to books. Soon ISBDs were developed for other formats, including cartographic materials, nonbook materials, printed music, antiquarian books, monographs, and serials. The General International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD(G)) was introduced in 1977 and governs the more specific ISBDs. ISBD(G) is "intended to provide the maximum amount of descriptive information in a range of different bibliographic activities." It distributes elements into eight areas: (1) title and statement of responsibility; (2) edition; (3) material (or type of publication) specific data; (4) publication, distribution data (including place and date of publication); (5) physical description; (6) series; (7) notes; and (8) standard number and terms of availability. The ISBDs themselves are not cataloging rules, but instead are meant to provide a "common basis for the construction of national and multinational cataloguing codes."3 The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules are based on ISBD(G).

A second edition of AACR was published in 1978, with a substantial revision appearing in 1988. The introduction to this latest version contains an explanation of the history, structure, and working methods of the international group of catalogers who are responsible for maintaining and revising the rules. Originally, what is now known as the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR was constituted of representatives from the U.S., U.K., and Canada, with Australia first sending an observer in 1981 and joining as a full participant in 1986. Each country has its own system for professional review and consultation. In the U.S., the American Library Association's Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA) is the principal agent for proposing and reviewing changes to existing rules. CC:DA includes both ALA members and liaisons from more than forty outside organizations, including one from SAA. The Library of Congress also takes an active if not leading role in the review and maintenance process for AACR.

Adaptations for special materials cataloging

As the separate format for archives and manuscripts, USMARC AMC, came close to adoption, it became clear that the existing rules in AACR 2 that might be used to control data entered in the format (those in Chapter 4 on "Manuscripts") were largely unworkable for most repositories.

Archivists were not alone in seeing the need to adapt AACR 2 for nonbook cataloging. The Council of National Library and Information Associations convened a Joint Committee on Special Cataloguing that, in 1980, obtained a grant to prepare new rules for manuscripts, visual materials, and motion pictures. The Library of Congress agreed to allow staff members to prepare the drafts for these manuals which were then circulated widely and validated through a broadly based review and consultation process prior to publication.

The three manuals that resulted all have full entries in this chapter: Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts (APPM) by Steven Hensen, Graphic Materials (GIHC) by Elisabeth Betz Parker, and Archival Moving Image Materials (AMIM) by Wendy White-Hensen. Hensen revised and substantially expanded APPM through a project sponsored by SAA and funded by NEH and the resulting second edition was published in 1989.

Although these three have received the most attention from the archival community, a large number of other interpretive manuals have been prepared for other kinds of specialized materials or applications. Because collections in many repositories contain a wide variety of media, a summary list of other manuals has been included in the "Also of Interest" section at the end of the chapter.

Canadian archivists have also embarked on the preparation of rules that, like APPM, are compatible with the USMARC AMC Format and with the overall tenets of AACR 2. They are approaching rule development differently, however, starting with a general statement of principles, then defining the contents of description at the fonds level, and finally, creating rules for description of different kinds of materials. A fuller discussion of the work toward archival description standards in both Canada and the U.K. is included in Chapter 13 of this handbook.

Rule interpretations

The principal source for resolving questions about how to apply AACR 2 rules is the rule interpretations issued by the Library of Congress. There are several published sources noted in the entry in this chapter.

Further reading

Clack, Doris H., ed. The Making of a Code: The Issues Underlying AACR2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1980.

Ehrenberg, Ralph E. Archives & Manuscripts: Maps and Architectural Drawings. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1982.

Evans, Linda J., and Maureen O'Brien Will. MARC for Archival Visual Materials: A Compendium of Practice. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1988.

Hensen, Steven L. "The First Shall Be First: APPM and Its Impact on American Archival Description." Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993): 64-70.

Hensen, Steven L. "Squaring the Circle: The Reformation of Archival Description in AACR2." Library Trends 36 (Winter 1988): 539-552.

Hensen, Steven L. "The Use of Standards in the Application of the MARC Format." American Archivist 49 (Winter 1986): 31-40.

Matters, Marion. "Reconciling Sibling Rivalry in the AACR 2 'Family': The Potential for Agreement on Rules for Archival Description of All Types of Materials." American Archivist 53 (Winter 1990): 76-93.

Michelson, Avra. "Description and Reference in the Age of Automation." American Archivist 50 (Spring 1987): 192-208.

Multiple Versions Forum Report: Report from a Meeting Held December 6-8, 1989, Airlie, Virginia. Washington, DC: Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress, 1990.

Ostroff, Harriet. "From Clay Tablets to MARC AMC: The Past, Present, and Future of Cataloging Manuscript and Archival Collections." Provenance 4 (Fall 1986): 1-11.

Smiralgia, Richard P., ed. Describing Archival Materials: The Use of the MARC AMC Format. New York: Haworth Press, 1990. Also published as Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 11:3/4 (1990). Contains the following relevant articles:

Corsaro, James. "Control of Cartographic Materials in Archives," 213-228.

Fox, Michael J. "Descriptive Cataloging for Archival Materials," 17-34.

Thomas, David H. "Cataloging Sound Recordings Using Archival Methods," 193-212.

Weber, Lisa B. "Describing Microforms and the MARC Formats: A Discussion Paper." Archival Informatics Newsletter 1:2 (Summer 1987): 9-13.

Yee, Martha M. "Integration of Nonbook Materials in AACR2." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 3:4 (Summer 1983): 1-18.

Yontz, Elaine. "Cataloger/Archivist Cooperation, or, Don't Those People Know What a Series Is?" In Academic Libraries: Acheiving Excellence in Higher Education. Proceedings of the 6th National Conference of the Association of College and Research Libraries, edited by Thomas Kirk, 128-130. Chicago: ACRL, 1992.


Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR 2)

2nd ed., 1988 rev.
Cloth (677 p.). ISBN 0-8389-3346-7. LC 88-19349.
Available from ALA. $33.75 members; $37.50 nonmembers.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

The first edition of AACR appeared in 1967, a cooperative effort of catalogers in the U.S., U.K., and Canada. The second edition, published in 1978 and revised in 1988, was developed by the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, Michael Gorman and Paul Winkler, editors. The American Library Association's Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA) is the U.S. representative to the Joint Steering Committee and the body responsible for making recommendations on rule revision and maintenance in the U.S. The Society of American Archivists appoints a liaison to CC:DA.

Scope and structure:

Rules for descriptive cataloging of all types of materials likely to be found in general library collections. Individual chapters cover books, pamphlets, and printed sheets; cartographic materials; manuscripts; music; sound recordings; motion pictures and videorecordings; graphic materials; computer files; three-dimensional artifacts and realia; microforms; and serials. Rules guide catalogers in (1) constructing descriptions to identify and represent bibliographic works in catalogs; and (2) constructing uniform headings (for persons, corporate bodies, geographic places, and titles) to be used as access points in catalogs. They do not cover subject cataloging.

Related standards:

Based on the twelve "Paris Principles" developed by the International Conference on Cataloguing Principles in October 1961 and on ISBD(G). The General International Standard Archival Description (ISAD(G)) is intended to fulfill the same function for archives as the ISBD performs for libraries.

The Library of Congress Name Authority File is a data value standard containing authorized name headings formulated according to AACR 2 by the Library of Congress and institutions participating in the Name Authority Cooperative (NACO) project (see introduction to Chapter 6 for a discussion of NACO and LCNA entry.

Library of Congress Rule Interpretations are interpretive guidelines for U.S. users of AACR 2.

Archival applications:

AACR 2, Chapter 4, "Manuscripts," focuses on description of individual manuscript items, particularly literary manuscripts and letters. Most archives will choose to use APPM rather than AACR 2, Chapter 4. But for archives that sometimes catalog books, pamphlets, and nontextual materials, other AACR 2 chapters offer guidance. Also, AACR 2 has additional rules on choice or form of entries that are not in APPM.

Alternate availability:

Also available in paper (ISBN 0-8389-3360-2, $27.50) and looseleaf (ISBN 0-8389-3361-0, $48.00).

References:

Gorman, Michael. The Concise AACR2, 1988 Revision. Chicago: American Library Association, 1989.

Hensen, Steven L. "The Use of Standards in the Application of the MARC Format." American Archivist 49 (Winter 1986): 31-40.

Hensen, Steven L. "Squaring the Circle: The Reformation of Archival Description in AACR2." Library Trends 36 (Winter 1988): 539-552.

Matters, Marion. "Reconciling Sibling Rivalry in the AACR2 'Family': The Potential for Agreement on Rules for Archival Description of All Types of Materials." American Archivist 53 (Winter 1990): 76-93.

Maxwell, Margaret F. Handbook for AACR2: Explaining and Illustrating the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. Chicago: American Library Association, 1989.

Orbach, Barbara. "Integrating Concepts: Corporate Main Entry and Graphic Materials." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 8:2 (1987/88): 71-89.

Orbach, Barbara. "So That Others May See: Tools for Cataloging Still Images." In Describing Archival Materials: The Use of the MARC AMC Format, edited by Richard P. Smiralgia, 163-191. New York: Haworth Press, 1990. Also published as Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 11:3/4 (1990).

Swanson, Edward. "Choice and Form of Access Points According to AACR 2." In Describing Archival Materials: The Use of the MARC AMC Format, edited by Richard P. Smiralgia, 35-61. New York: Haworth Press, 1990. Also published as Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 11:3/4 (1990).


Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts: A Cataloging Manual for Archival Repositories, Historical Societies, and Manuscript Libraries (APPM)

2nd ed., 1989.
Paper (196 p.). ISBN 0-931828-73-2. LC 89-63416.
Available from SAA.
$19.00 members; $26.00 nonmembers.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

First edition compiled by Steven L. Hensen, under sponsorship of the Joint Committee on Specialized Cataloging of the Council of National Library and Information Associations (CNLIA); funded by a grant to CNLIA from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). Second edition also prepared by Hensen sponsored by the Society of American Archivists, funded by a grant from NEH, and reviewed by an advisory committee of Library of Congress staff. Drafts were circulated for broad professional review prior to publication. Adopted as a standard for archival description by the SAA Council (24 October 1989). Maintenance is assumed to be the responsibility of the Society of American Archivists' Committee on Archival Information Exchange.

Scope and structure:

Rules for descriptive cataloging of archival materials in any physical format, focusing on collections or groups and the historical context of creation rather than on individual items, although they will accommodate item-level description. In the U.S. it replaces AACR 2 Chapter 4 for repositories that wish to emphasize aspects of archival control in their cataloging. By following the general structure and approach of AACR 2, APPM provides for the integration of information about archival materials with information about other research resources in bibliographic systems. Rules guide catalogers in (1) constructing descriptions to identify and represent archival material in catalogs, and (2) selecting and constructing uniform headings (for persons, corporate bodies, geographic places, and titles) to be used as access points in catalogs. The chapters on headings borrow heavily from AACR 2 and incorporate some Library of Congress Rule Interpretations. Does not cover subject cataloging.

Related standards:

Chapter 4, "Manuscripts," in AACR 2 focuses on description of individual manuscript items. Chapters 22-25 contain some rules, especially relating to names in languages other than English, that users of APPM may need to consult. Appendixes A (Capitalization), B (Abbreviations), and C (Numerals) contain information that also may be required.

Archival applications:

The major bibliographic utilities (RLIN, OCLC, and WLN) require that members use either APPM or AACR 2 when cataloging general archival materials in the USMARC AMC format.

The Report on Descriptive Practices for Government Records, prepared by the RLG Government Records Project, provides specific guidance for applying USMARC AMC and APPM standards to the description of government records in RLIN.

References:

Fox, Michael J. "Descriptive Cataloging for Archival Materials." In Describing Archival Materials: The Use of the MARC AMC Format, edited by Richard P. Smiralgia, 17-34. New York: Haworth Press, 1990. Also published as Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 11:3/4 (1990).

Hensen, Steven L. "The First Shall Be First: APPM and Its Impact on American Archival Description." Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993): 64-70.

Hensen, Steven L. "The Use of Standards in the Application of the MARC Format." American Archivist 49 (Winter 1986): 31-40.

Hensen, Steven L. "Squaring the Circle: The Reformation of Archival Description in AACR2." Library Trends 36 (Winter 1988): 539-552.

Hensen, Steven L. "RAD, MAD, and APPM: The Search for Anglo-American Standards for Archival Description." Archives and Museum Informatics 5 (Summer 1991): 2-5.

Hickerson, H. Thomas. "Archival Information Exchange and the Role of Bibliographic Networks." Library Trends 36 (Winter 1988): 553-571.

Matters, Marion. "Reconciling Sibling Rivalry in the AACR2 'Family': The Potential for Agreement on Rules for Archival Description of All Types of Materials." American Archivist 53 (Winter 1990): 76-93.


Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections (GIHC)

Online version

1982.
Paper (159 p.). LC 82-600260.
Available from LC CDS. $12.00.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Elisabeth Betz (Parker), compiler, assisted by other staff of the Prints and Photographs Division (PPD) in the Library of Congress and a committee of five experts; sponsored by the Joint Committee on Specialized Cataloging of the Council of National Library and Information Associations (CNLIA); funded by a grant to CNLIA from the National Endowment for the Humanities. No formal mechanism is established for its maintenance, although the PPD staff maintains an updated file internally.

Scope and structure:

Rules for description of two-dimensional pictorial works, both single items or collections, focusing on the unique or original, including prints, posters, drawings, paintings, and photographic prints or negatives. Based on AACR 2; may be used instead of AACR 2, Chapter 8 by repositories that wish to provide more extensive information on the physical nature, visual content, or historical context of creation. Does not cover choice of access points, the form of name or title headings, or subject cataloging.

Related standards:

AACR 2, Chapters 21-25 must be used in conjunction with GIHC to select and formulate headings for personal names, corporate names, place names, and uniform titles. Chapter 8 may be used by catalogers handling modern and commercially available graphic materials.

Archival applications:

Primarily used by archivists dealing with special collections of graphic materials. The major bibliographic utilities (RLIN, OCLC, WLN) require that members use either GIHC, AMIM, or AACR 2 when cataloging materials in the USMARC VM format.

Guidance on devising titles, recording publication data, creating physical descriptions, and composing notes also may be useful to archivists who handle these materials less frequently.

References:

Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division. "Cataloging Graphic Materials: Selected Bibliography." Washington, DC: Library of Congress, April 1988. [photocopy]

Matters, Marion. "Reconciling Sibling Rivalry in the AACR2 'Family': The Potential for Agreement on Rules for Archival Description of All Types of Materials," American Archivist 53:1 (Winter 1990): 76-93.

Orbach, Barbara. "Integrating Concepts: Corporate Main Entry and Graphic Materials." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 8:2 (1987/88): 71-89.

Orbach, Barbara. "So That Others May See: Tools for Cataloging Still Images." In Describing Archival Materials: The Use of the MARC AMC Format, edited by Richard P. Smiraglia, 163-191. New York: Haworth Press, 1990. Also published as Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 11:3/4 (1990).


Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloging Manual (AMIM)

Online version

1984.
Paper (217 p.).
ISBN 0-8444-0478-0. LC 84-600285.
Available from LC CDS. $15.00.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Wendy White-Hensen, compiler, assisted by staff of the Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division (Library of Congress) and a group of other experts; sponsored by the Joint Committee on Specialized Cataloging of the Council of National Library and Information Associations (CNLIA); funded by a grant to CNLIA from the National Endowment for the Humanities. No formal mechanism has been established for maintenance; LC staff maintain a set of interpretations for internal use.

Scope and structure:

Rules cover description of historical or noncommercial moving image material such as theatrical releases, shorts, news footage, trailers, outtakes, screen tests, training films, educational material, commercials, spot announcements, home movies, amateur footage, television broadcasts, and unedited footage. Prepared within the general structure of AACR 2, but departs from traditional cataloging rules because of the "archival need for a conflation in one record of data covering several physical pieces . . . belonging to the same moving image title." Does not cover subject cataloging or the form of name or title headings.

Related standards:

AACR 2, Chapters 22-24 must be used in conjunction with AMIM to formulate headings for personal names, corporate names, and place names. Chapter 7 may be used by catalogers handling commercially available moving image materials.

The International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF) published its Cataloguing Rules for Film Archives in 1991.

Archival applications:

Primarily used by archivists dealing with special collections of moving image materials. The major bibliographic utilities (RLIN, OCLC, WLN) require that members use GIHC, AMIM, or AACR 2 when cataloging materials in the USMARC VM format.

Guidance on physical description and notes also may be useful to archivists who handle these materials less frequently.

References:

Matters, Marion. "Reconciling Sibling Rivalry in the AACR2 'Family': The Potential for Agreement on Rules for Archival Description of All Types of Materials." American Archivist 53 (Winter 1990): 76-93.


Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRI)

Continuing.
See additional information under
"Publication format and availability" below.


Development, approval, and maintenance:

Rule interpretations are developed by staff at the Library of Congress. The interpretations are issued or revised as needed to resolve cataloging questions.

Scope and structure:

The rule interpretations document LC's decisions concerning its own application of AACR 2 rules, including defining specific cases and using optional rules in AACR 2. They are first published in the Cataloging Service Bulletin.

Related standards:

Interpretations refer to AACR 2 rule numbers.

Archival applications:

Members of U.S. bibliographic utilities (e.g., OCLC, RLIN) are generally expected to follow LC's rule interpretations. Some LCRIs have been incorporated into APPM. Archivists should occasionally check for new LCRIs that apply to archival headings (AACR 2, Chapters 22-24; APPM, Chapters 3-5).

Publication format and availability:

LCRI are available in four formats, two issued by LC itself and two by independent publishers:

Library of Congress. Cataloging Service Bulletin. Quarterly. ISSN 0160-8029. Available from LC CDS. Annual subscription, $23.00 (1993).

Library of Congress Rule Interpretations. 1989 cumulation, with annual updates. Looseleaf (2 v.). ISBN 0-8444-0639-2. Available from LC CDS. $110.00; plus $75.00 for annual subscription to quarterly updates.

LC Rule Interpretations of AACR2. 1985, 1987, 1988. Sally C. Tseng. Looseleaf. Available from Scarecrow Press. $49.50, $32.50, $35.00.

LC Rule Interpretations: A Cumulation from Cataloging Service Bulletins. 1989, with quarterly updates. Looseleaf. Available from Oberlin College Library. $22.00 for supplements.


ALSO OF INTEREST

Arranged by topic.

General

Notes in the Catalog Record: Based on AACR2 and LC Rule Interpretations. 1989. Jerry D. Saye and Sherry L. Vellucci. Cloth (581 p.). ISBN 0-8389-3348-3. LC 88-950. Available from ALA. $63.00 members; $70.00 nonmembers.

Explanations and examples of all notes specified in AACR 2, with applicable LC rule interpretations and references to historical background in AACR 1. Certain practices specified in AACR 1 have been continued by LC, even though not specified in AACR 2, as long as they do not conflict with AACR 2. Also contains references to notes rules in APPM, GIHC, AMIM, and other AACR 2-based cataloging manuals.

Audiovisual materials: sound, graphics, and moving images

FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film Archives. 1991. Film-Television-Sound Archive Series, Vol. 1. Harriet W. Harrison, compiler; FIAF (International Federation of Film Archives) Cataloguing Commission. Cloth (239 p.). ISBN 3-598-22590-3. Available from K.G. Saur. $65.00.

Rules that address the needs of the international film archives community.

Cataloging Motion Pictures and Videorecordings. 1st ed., 1990. Nancy B. Olson. Minnesota AACR 2 Trainers Series, No. 1. Paper (150 p.). ISBN 0-936996-38-2. Available from Soldier Creek Press. $25.00.

Cataloging of Audiovisual Materials: A Manual Based on AACR 2. 3rd ed., 1991. Nancy B. Olson. Cloth (300 p.). ISBN 0-933474-48-2. Available from Media Marketing Group. $55.00.

Rules for Archival Cataloging of Sound Recordings. 1980 (currently being revised). Association for Recorded Sound Collections. Paper (65 p.). Available from ARSC.

Cartographic materials

Cartographic Materials. 1982. Hugo L.P. Stibbe, gen. ed., Vivien Cartmell and Velma Parker, eds., for the Anglo-American Cataloguing Committee for Cartographic Materials. Paper (258 p.). Published by ALA, but out of print.

Designed for use in conjunction with AACR 2, elucidating it by means of applications, policies, and examples that address the special characteristics of cartographic materials. Directed toward institutions that require detailed cataloging of cartographic materials and catalogers who need more guidance than is provided in AACR 2, Chapter 3. Contains numerous Canadian, British, Australian, and U.S. examples. Does not cover subject cataloging or the form of name or title headings.

Map Cataloging Manual. 1991. Library of Congress. Looseleaf (244 p.). Available from LC CDS. $30.00.

Prepared for use at the Library of Congress, but made available to disseminate this information throughout the cartographic cataloging community. Does not replace Cartographic Materials (1982).

Geographic Cutters. 2nd ed., 1988. Library of Congress. Microfiche. Available from LC CDS. $40.00.

Alphanumeric list of codes for designated place names in the U.S., including physical and cultural features and regions.

Computer files

Note: The two manuals often associated with cataloging of computer files (Cataloging Machine-Readable Data Files: An Interpretive Manual, 1982, Sue A. Dodd; and Cataloging Microcomputer Files: A Manual of Interpretation for AACR 2, 1985, Sue A. Dodd and Ann M. Sandberg-Fox) are now outdated. Chapter 9 of AACR 2 (1988) should be used instead.

Cataloging Microcomputer Software: A Manual to Accompany AACR 2, Chapter 9, Computer Files. 1989. Nancy B. Olson. Paper (267 p.). ISBN 0-87287-513-X. Available from Libraries Unlimited. $33.00.

A Manual of AACR 2 Examples for Microcomputer Software, with MARC Tagging and Coding. 3rd ed., 1988. Nancy B. Olson. (New edition in preparation, 1991). ISBN 0-936996-34-X. Available from Soldier Creek Press. $15.00.

Cataloging Computer Files. 1991. Nancy B. Olson. Paper (135 p.). ISBN 0-936996-47. Available from Soldier Creek Press. $25.00.

Government documents

Cataloging Government Documents: A Manual of Interpretation for AACR 2. 1984. Bernadine Hoduski, ed.; Government Documents Round Table, American Library Association. ISBN 0-8389-3304-1. LC 84-6499. Cloth (272 p.). Available from ALA. $50.00.

Explains or clarifies AACR 2 rules (and LC rule interpretations) as they apply to government document cataloging. Also augments AACR 2 with respect to certain features of government documents, interpreting these features in a manner consistent with the spirit of AACR 2. Does not cover subject cataloging. Less frequently used since the Government Printing Office began to assume a role as the authoritative source for federal document cataloging.

Looseleaf publications

Cataloging Rules for the Description of Looseleaf Publications: With Special Emphasis on Legal Materials. 2nd ed., 1989. Adele Hallam; Library of Congress. Paper (60 p.). Available from LC CDS. $15.00.

Guidelines that supplement AACR 2 for the cataloging of publications issued in looseleaf form and intended to be updated in that form. Does not cover formulation of headings or subject cataloging.

Microforms

Guidelines for Cataloging Microform Sets. 1989. Association for Library Collections & Technical Services (ALCTS), ALA. Leaflet (2 p.). Available from ALCTS. $1.00.

Basic guidelines directed particularly toward libraries that apply for grant funds to support large microform set cataloging projects, and libraries whose catalog records are made available to others through "set processing" in bibliographic utilities.

Music

Cataloging Music: A Manual for Use with AACR 2. 2nd ed., 1986. Richard Smiraglia. Paper (181 p.). ISBN 0-936996-19-6. LC 86-03615. Available from Soldier Creek Press. $35.00.

Contains explanations, interpretations, and plentiful examples that illustrate how to apply AACR 2 rules to describe and provide access points for music and sound recordings. Covers uniform titles extensively, but not forms for name headings (2 pages), or subject cataloging.

Music Coding and Tagging: MARC Content Designation for Scores and Sound Recordings. 1990. Jay Weitz. Paper (302 p.). ISBN 0-936996-36-6. Available from Soldier Creek Press. $35.00.

Text shows coding and tagging of bibliographic records for scores and sound recordings in OCLC, RLIN, and WLN.

Music Cataloging: The Bibliographic Control of Printed and Recorded Music in Libraries. 1989. Richard P. Smiraglia. Cloth (300 p.). ISBN 0-87287-425-7. Available from Libraries Unlimited. $38.00.

Newspapers

Newspaper Cataloging and Union Listing Manual. 1990. Library of Congress. Available from LC CDS. Looseleaf (266 p.). $27.00.

Guidelines for creating bibliographic or holdings records for newspapers; conforms to AACR 2, Library of Congress Subject Headings (and Subject Cataloging Manual), and American National Standard for Serial Holdings Statement at the Summary Level (ANSI Z39.42). Covers USMARC coding (arranged by field) and uses OCLC screen displays and photocopies of newspapers as examples.

Rare books

Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books. 2nd ed., 1991. Office for Descriptive Cataloging Policy, Library of Congress, and the Bibliographic Standards Committee of the Rare Books and Manuscripts Section, Association of College and Research Libraries, American Library Association. Paper (113 p.). ISBN 0-8444-0690-2. LC 91-6988. Available from LC CDS. $21.00.

Prepared by a working group under the auspices of the Office for Descriptive Cataloging Policy, Library of Congress, and the Bibliographic Standards Committee of the Rare Books and Manuscripts Section, Association of College and Research Libraries, American Library Association. The rules are based on AACR 2 (1988) and are intended for use in "cataloging printed books, pamphlets, and single-sheet publications whose rarity, value, or interest make special description necessary or desirable." The Library of Congress uses these rules for cataloging all pre-1801 printed materials. The first edition was published in 1981 under the title Bibliographic Description of Rare Books.


Footnotes

1 The historical summary is based on a longer review in Ronald Hagler, The Bibliographic Record and Information Technology, 2nd ed. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1991), 146-147.

2 The "Paris Principles" were published in Statement of Principles Adopted at the International Conference on Cataloguing Principles, Paris, October 1961, annotated and edited with commentary and examples by Eva Verona, et al. (London: IFLA Committee on Cataloguing, 1971).

3 The ISBDs are discussed in Gredley and Hopkinson, Exchanging Bibliographic Data: MARC and Other International Formats (Chicago: American Library Association, 1990), 17-21, and Ronald Hagler, The Bibliographic Record and Information Technology, 2nd ed. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1991), 228-237. See also Anthony G. Curwen, ISBD Manual: A Guide to the Interpretation and Use of the International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions, PGI-90\WS\16 (Paris: Unesco General Information Programme and UNISIST, 1990).

The ISBD family includes ISBD(G): General International Standard Bibliographic Description; ISBD(A) for Older Monographic Publications (Antiquarian); ISBD(CM) for Cartographic Materials; ISBD(M) for Monographic Publications; ISBD (MRF) for Machine-Readable (computer) Files; ISBD (NBM) for Non-Book Materials; ISBD(PM) for Printed Music; and ISBD(S) for Serials. Hagler notes that all are published by the IFLA Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC Programme and are distributed by the British Library. Many of them are also available in the U.S. through the private publisher, K.G. Saur.



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Standards for Archival Description: A Handbook
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