for Archival Description: A Handbook
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Archivists will encounter systems-level standards in one of two contexts: either when they are defining specifications for a local automated system that will operate within their own repository or when they are trying to establish links with external networks in order to communicate or exchange data.
In either case, the most fundamental concepts to understand are those underlying open systems. The ultimate goal of open systems standards is to make possible both interconnection (the physical connections that allow machines and components manufactured by different companies to be plugged into one another) and interoperability (the logical connections that allow information or data contained in one machine or system to be transferred and used by another).
In the early days of computing, manufacturers deliberately made their physical components and software interfaces unique or "proprietary" so that their customers would be forced to buy all of their equipment from a single source. By purchasing the first component, the customer had made a substantial, long-term commitment to the products created or supported by that manufacturer.
Soon both the manufacturers and their customers began to see the limitations of this proprietary approach. Anyone who has tried to move files back and forth between a DOS-based personal computer and an Apple knows the frustration involved in dealing with mutually incompatible machines. A 1991 agreement between IBM and Apple to work toward interoperability was greeted with great applause, but it is only the latest milestone in an effort toward standardizing an open systems approach that began more than two decades ago.
The desirability of open systems was first recognized in 1970 by a manager in a San Francisco-based insurance company who had to collect information from 12,000 independent agents across the U.S. and disseminate information to them from the main office, all by computer.1 The agents were using "every possible make and model of computer," none of which could communicate with each other or with the main office, and the fact that they were independent agents meant that the company could do little to control this diversity. Instead, some means had to be found to accommodate it and overcome the intermachine conflicts.
Working on the correct assumption that this problem extended well beyond her own situation, the manager expressed a need for standards in this area to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3 Committee on Information Technology in March 1970 and became the first chair of X3T5, the working group which was created that year to develop open systems standards.
The X3T5 working group spent the years from 1970 to 1978 developing a "reference model." It was designed "to serve as a framework (1) for the definition and organization of functions required for the exchange of information between computers, (2) for the definition of services provided by each category of functions, and (3) for the division of standards development work so that different groups could work simultaneously to develop standards for all functions."
The original U.S. version of the reference model had six layers. In 1978 work began at the international level to further refine the reference model. Twenty-six countries and more than 100 companies and government organizations participated in the effort. Their work led to an additional distinction between the Network and Transport layers. As a result, the standard approved in 1984 as ISO 7498, Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)--Basic Reference Model, has the now widely known seven-layer architecture.
Since that time, a multitude of standards has been developed within the OSI framework. In 1988, the CEOs of the ten largest multinational companies in computer networking signed an agreement to cooperate in the development of open systems. The 1991 agreement between Apple and IBM gives additional visibility and weight to the OSI effort.
Well before the approval of an international standard for open systems, the library community in the United States saw the value of developing standards to enable the exchange of bibliographic and other data. In 1975, the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) called for the planning, development and implementation of a nationwide library network.2 Several independent networks by then had begun to proliferate3 and it was clear that a substantial effort would be needed to allow them to communicate with one another and with the Library of Congress (LC), still the largest repository of bibliographic data in the U.S.
The NCLIS report called on LC to assume leadership in the pursuit of this unified, nationwide network. In 1976 LC created what is now the Network Development and MARC Standards Office to coordinate the work and convened the first meeting of the group that became the Network Advisory Committee (NAC).
Also in the mid-1970s, the Council on Library Resources created a Bibliographic Service Development Program and sponsored the Network Technical Architecture Group (NTAG). A landmark document published by NTAG in 1978, which had been reviewed and approved by LC's Network Advisory Committee, enumerated the requirements for transmitting messages between bibliographic systems using telecommunications links.4
By 1980, LC, the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN), and the Western Library Network (WLN) had agreed to form the Linked Systems Project (LSP) to concentrate on developing and implementing the message delivery system outlined in the 1978 NTAG report. OCLC joined LSP in 1984. While each of these participants has "a well-established bibliographic system with record creation, file building and search and response systems that differ significantly, . . . fortunately, each system is based on the data content and content designation found in the MARC record."5 LSP communication links became operational in July 1987.
LSP has tried to keep its work in harmony with the international OSI standards. Like OSI, the LSP's Standard Network Interconnection (SNI) protocols are conceived in a seven-layer architecture. In the uppermost or seventh layer, five application-specific protocols exist--Information Retrieval, Record Transfer, Message Transfer, Test, and Association Control--although only the first two are actually in use.
LSP participants submitted the SNI Information Retrieval protocol to the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) in 1983 for consideration as an American National Standard. A NISO subcommittee further developed the document which was finally approved in 1988 as ANSI/NISO Z39.50, Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications. Z39.50 is the first standard developed by NISO for library applications within the OSI framework and has formed the basis for international work on similar standards that resulted in ISO 10162 and 10163, approved in 1991.6
The first application of the SNI protocols in LSP has been for the exchange of authorities data using work already begun in LC's NACO (originally the Name Authority Cooperative, now the National Coordinated Cataloging Operations).7 The LSP participants made this a priority because NACO provided a viable model on which to build and because the creation of authority records is so costly.8 The next focus will be on further developing the Records Transfer protocol through the National Coordinated Cataloging Program (NCCP).
Many archival repositories are now contributing catalog records to the national bibliographic networks, RLIN and OCLC, either directly or through the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC), so it is important for them to understand the efforts these utilities are making toward the ultimate goal of a unified bibliographic network.
In addition, archivists who are participating in decisions about purchasing or designing automated systems for their own repositories will want to be aware of the open systems concepts. Through their application, archivists can ensure that all of their locally owned equipment can work together and be certain that it will connect and communicate with external systems.
Beyond the actual use by archivists for processing their own information, the standards underlying open systems are seen by many as providing a long-term solution to the preservation of electronically stored information. As Dollar and Weir have pointed out, the archival preservation of electronic information is the equivalent of data exchange over time.9 Just as systems designers are concerned with moving data from one machine to another today, archivists are concerned with moving today's data into tomorrow's machines. While discussions of such issues are beyond the scope of this handbook, archivists should be aware of them and should monitor the development of open systems standards so they can apply them appropriately for the preservation of electronic records.10
American Management Systems, Inc. Revised System Concept for the National Archives Information System. Arlington, VA: AMS, 1986.
Bearman, David. "Archives and Manuscript Control with Bibliographic Utilities: Opportunities and Challenges." American Archivist 52 (Winter 1989): 26-39.
Bearman, David. Automated Systems for Archives and Museums: Acquisition and Implementation Issues. Archives and Museum Informatics Technical Report no. 4. Pittsburgh: Archives and Museum Informatics, 1988.
Cox, Richard J. "The American Archival Profession and Information Technology Standards." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 43 (September 1992): 571-575.
Gilliland, Anne J. "The Development of Automated Archival Systems: Planning and Managing Change." Library Trends 36 (Winter 1988): 519-537.
Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J. "Automated Archival Systems." In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Allan Kent, executive editor, vol. 48, 1-13. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991.
Green, Adam. The Development of Policies and Plans in Archival Automation. RAMP Study PGI 91\WS\19. Paris: Unesco, 1991.
Hickerson, H. Thomas. "Archival Information Exchange and the Role of Bibliographic Networks." Library Trends 36 (Winter 1988): 553-571.
Hickerson, H. Thomas. Archives and Manuscripts: An Introduction to Automated Access. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1981.
Hickerson, H. Thomas. "Standards for Archival Information Management Systems." American Archivist 53 (Winter 1990): 24-28.
Kesner, Richard, and Lisa B. Weber. Automating the Archives: A Beginner's Guide. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1991.
Kesner, Richard M. Information Systems: A Strategic Approach to Planning and Implementation. Chicago: American Library Association, 1988.
National Archives and Records Administration. Design Document for the Archival Information System. Washington, DC: NARA, in press.
Roe, Kathleen D. "The Automation Odyssey: Library and Archives System Design Considerations." In Describing Archival Materials: The Use of the MARC AMC Format, edited by Richard P. Smiraglia, 145-162. New York: Haworth Press, 1990. Also published as Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 11:3/4 (1990).
Sahli, Nancy. "National Information Systems and Strategies for Research Use." Midwestern Archivist 9 (1984): 5-13.
Standard Technology Incorporated. Archival Information System (AIS) Prototype Final Report. Rockville, MD: STI, 1992.
Tusa, Bobs M. "An Overview of Applications of Automation to Special Collections: Maps and Archives." Information Technology and Libraries 12 (December 1993): 405-411.
Weber, Lisa B. "Educating Archivists for Automation." Library Trends 36 (Winter 1988): 501-518.
Avram, Henriette D. "Building a Unified Information Network." EDUCOM Bulletin 23 (Winter 1988): 11-14.
Boss, Richard W. "Linked Systems and the Online Catalog: The Role of the OSI." Library Resources and Technical Services 34 (1990): 217-228.
Buckland, Michael K., and Clifford Lynch. "The Linked Systems Protocol and the Future of Bibliographic Networks and Systems." Information Technology and Libraries 6 (July 1989): 83-88.
Buckland, Michael K., and Clifford Lynch. "National and International Implications of the Linked Systems Protocol for Online Bibliographic Systems." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 8 (1988): 15-33.
Day, Elaine Lois. "Management Issues in Selection, Development, and Implementation of Integrated or Linked Systems for Academic Libraries." Advances in Library Administration and Organization 8 (1989): 69-111.
Denenberg, Ray. "Open Systems Interconnection." In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, suppl. 9, vol. 44, 210-233. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1990.
Denenberg, Ray, special issue editor. Library Hi Tech 8:4, consecutive issue 32 (1990). Entire issue devoted to Open Systems Interconnection.
Durance, Cynthia J., and Neil McLean. "Libraries and Access to Information in an Open Systems Environment." In A Sourcebook of Standards Information, edited by Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell, 175-189. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991. Originally published in IFLA Journal 14 (1988).
Fenly, Judith G., and Beacher Wiggins. The Linked Systems Project: A Networking Tool for Libraries. Dublin, OH: OCLC, 1988.
Hagler, Ronald. The Bibliographic Record and Information Technology. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1991.
McCallum, Sally H. "Linked Systems Project in the United States." IFLA Journal 11 (1985): 313-325.
McCallum, Sally H. "Standards and Linked Online Information Systems." Library Resources and Technical Services 34 (1990): 360-366.
Radack, Shirley M. "More Effective Federal Computer Systems: The Role of NIST and Standards." Government Information Quarterly 7:1 (1990): 37-49.
Smith, Christine H., ed. Open Systems Interconnection: The Communications Technology of the 1990s. Papers from the Pre-Conference Seminar Held at London, August 12-14, 1987. IFLA Pub. No. 44. Munich: K.G. Saur, 1988.
Tomer, Christinger. "Information Technology Standards for Libraries." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 43 (September 1992): 566-570.
Paper (40 p.).
Available from ANSI. $35.00.
Jointly approved by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) through their Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1). Maintenance assigned to JTC 1, SC 6, Telecommunications and Information Exchange Among Systems, whose secretariat is ANSI. Addendum 1 approved in 1987; Technical Corrigendum 1 approved in 1988.
OSI provides a framework within which standards can be developed to provide interconnection (the ability to physically connect hardware regardless of manufacturer) and interoperability (the ability to transfer or communicate data from one machine to another and to run applications and process data so moved).
The OSI framework consists of seven functional layers: (1) physical, (2) link, (3) network, (4) transport, (5) session, (6) presentation, and (7) application. A message leaving one machine enters the OSI "stack" at layer seven and progresses down through each of the next six layers. At each layer, the first computer attaches information to the message which is then used by the corresponding layer in the receiving computer to interpret the structure and content of the message. As a result, when the message exits layer seven of the second computer, it can be read and processed by the receiving application. In the lowest layer (1), the standards concern the purely physical aspects of electronic transmission (quantity and arrangement of prongs in a plug, for instance). The applications layer (7) is the one closest to the user and provides the interface with the applications program being run on the host computer.
More than 100 standards have been developed within the OSI framework since its approval in 1984. The one specifically designed for use in automated bibliographic systems is ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1988
The Basic Reference Model is only Part 1 of the ISO 7498 standard. The other parts of the overall OSI standard are ISO 74982:1989, Part 2, Security architecture; ISO 7498-3:1989, Part 3, Naming and addressing; and ISO/IEC 7498-4:1989, Part 4, Management framework.
Through their cooperative work on the Linked Systems Project, the Library of Congress and the major bibliographic networks in the U.S. (RLIN, WLN, and OCLC) have committed themselves to exchanging bibliographic data and are using the OSI Basic Reference Model as a foundation for their work. These networks contain significant numbers of archival records and their policy decisions will therefore have an impact on archival descriptive programs. Ultimately, this commitment to OSI standards should greatly increase the ability of archivists to exchange information about their holdings and their repositories.
When designing or acquiring local systems, archivists will want to advocate open systems principles in order to ensure their ability to communicate and participate in the broader exchange of data about their holdings. The specifications for library implementations of OSI-concepts in Z39.50 and Z39.58 also have significant advantages for archival applications and should be considered in the development of archival systems.
"Functional Profiles" identify which standards are necessary to perform specific tasks or processes. Two well known functional profiles are MAP (Manufacturing Applications Profile), developed by General Motors for use in automated manufacturing, and TOP (Technical and Office Protocol), developed by Boeing for use by office and engineering design systems. Archivists working in federal government settings will need to know about GOSIP (Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile), published as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS Pub 146-1, 1991). Some members of the archival community are beginning to work toward the development of an "Archival Application Profile" to enumerate the specific requirements for information systems operating in archival repositories.
Denenberg, Ray. "Open Systems Interconnection." In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, suppl. 9, vol. 44, p. 210-233. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1990.
Denenberg, Ray, special issue editor. Library Hi Tech 8:4, consecutive issue no. 32 (1990). Entire issue devoted to Open Systems Interconnection.
Dollar, Charles M., and Thomas E. Weir, Jr. "Archival Administration, Records Management, and Computer Data Exchange Standards: An Intersection of Practice." In A Sourcebook of Standards Information, edited by Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell, 196-204. Boston: G.K. Hall and Co., 1991.
McCallum, Sally H. "Overview of the Linked Systems Project." In The Linked Systems Project: A Networking Tool for Libraries, compiled and edited by Judith G. Fenly and Beacher Wiggins, 7-18. Dublin, OH: OCLC, 1988.
Paper (xii + 50 p.).
ISBN 0-88738-953-8. ISSN 1041-5653.
Available from NISO. $35.00.
Original version compiled by participants in the Linked Systems Project and submitted to the National Information Standards Organization (NISO). A NISO subcommittee further refined the document. First edition approved by ANSI on 15 January 1988. The Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office was assigned maintenance responsibility by NISO for Z39.50. It also maintains a register of implementations of the standard. The Z39.50 Implementors Group (ZIG) develops and recommends enhancements.
Z39.50 is the first standard developed for library applications within the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) framework. The protocol specifies the mechanics for sending a search request from one machine to another, for responding to the request (indicating the size of the search result or other information), and for proceeding with a request to receive actual records within limits specified by the sending or receiving system, usually in the form of a MARC record.
The international counterparts to Z39.50 are ISO 10162:1993 and ISO 101631:1993, Search and Retrieve Service Definition and Protocol Specification, known as collectively as "SR." The developers of SR based their work largely on Z39.50-1988. Paper. Available from ANSI. $46.00 and $62.00.
Buckland, Michael K., and Clifford Lynch. "National and International Implications of the Linked Systems Protocol for Online Bibliographic Systems." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 8 (1988): 15-33.
Crawford, Walt. "Editor's Notebook." Information Standards Quarterly 3 (July 1991): 13-14.
Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 262-264.
Lynch, Clifford A. "Information Retrieval as a Network Application." Library Hi Tech 8 (1990): 57-72.
See also: Regular updates on Z39.50 and reports on ZIG activities in Information Standards Quarterly.
Paper (756 p. & 9 p.).
Available from ANSI. $75.00.
Compiled by the American National Standards Institute, ASC X3: Accredited Standards Committee for Information Processing Systems, Standards Committee X3H4. Approved by ANSI on 19 October 1988; supplement approved 2 July 1991. Maintenance is assigned to ASC X3, Information Processing Systems. Secretariat: CBEMA, Suite 500, 311 First Street NW, Washington, DC 20001.
"This standard specifies a Command Language Interface and an (interactive) Panel Interface to the Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS), a software tool which can be used to control, describe, protect, document, and facilitate use of an installation's information resources."
Information resource dictionary systems (IRDS) are specialized data bases that contain information about the data contained in other systems. This information about information is known as "meta-data." In essence, an IRDS is a finding aid to information contained in electronic files. It describes the structure and contents of other systems, including such items as field definitions, field length, and data formats, and can cover the hardware and software used and information about associated records stored in nonelectronic form as well.
Adopted as a U.S. government standard in FIPS Pub 156 in 1989. An international version is being drafted by ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 21, Working Group 3 (N166R1).
For active records, an IRDS provides a systematic method for data processing managers to keep track of which files contain what information and in what form. When these electronic records are determined to have archival value, archivists will probably accession existing IRDS files or create their own as part of the archival descriptive process to provide long-term access to electronically stored information.
Dollar, Charles M., and Thomas E. Weir, Jr. "Archival Administration, Records Management, and Computer Data Exchange Standards: An Intersection of Practice." In A Sourcebook of Standards Information, edited by Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell, 201-202. Boston: G.K. Hall and Co., 1991.
Protocol Standards and Communication, Inc. Situation Report on the Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS). Prepared for the National Archives of Canada. Ottawa: Protocol Standards and Communication, Inc., 1989.
United Nations. Advisory Committee for the Co-ordination of Information Systems (ACCIS). Management of Electronic Records: Issues and Guidelines. New York: United Nations, 1990, 31, 52.
Walch, Victoria Irons. "The Role of Standards in the Archival Management of Electronic Records." American Archivist 53 (Winter 1990): 40-41.
for publication 1993.
To be available from NISO. $35.00.
The first efforts toward development of a Common Command Language were made as early as 1980 by a committee in the National Information Standards Organization (NISO). After many years of effort a final draft was approved by NISO in July 1991.
The Common Command Language (CCL) is an attempt to create a single set of commands for use in any online catalog or other research-oriented database. It uses a three-character format that is familiar to RLIN users (e.g., FIN for find), among others. While it defines many terms for use as common commands (PRInt, RELate, HELp), it does not require that each system use these exact terms in its own user interface, only that it be able to recognize and respond to the terms when they are submitted by an external system.
The international counterpart to Z39.58 is ISO 8777:1993, Documentation--Commands for interactive text searching.
Archivists entering catalog data into online systems, both local and national, will find increasing use of CCL in the user interfaces provided by these systems. Archivists designing independent online databases should try to incorporate CCL terminology in their systems so that users familiar with it can more readily adapt to search and retrieval strategies on the archival system.
Buckland, Michael K., and Clifford A. Lynch. "National and International Implications of the Linked Systems Protocol for Online Bibliographic Systems." Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 8 (1988): 17-18.
Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 271-272.
Sloan, Bernard G. Linked Systems for Resource Sharing. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991, 83-84.
Arranged alphabetically by title
for Membership, Development, and Participation Systems. 1990. David Bearman;
Archives and Museum Informatics Technical Report no. 11. Paper (71 p.). Available
from Archives and Museum Informatics
or SAA, $20.00.
for Collections Management Systems. 1987. David Bearman; Archives and Museum
Informatics Technical Report no. 3. Paper (87 p.). Available from Archives
and Museum Informatics or SAA, $20.00.
Guidelines for Selecting
Automated Systems. 1986. Joseph R. Matthews; American Library Association,
Library Information Technology Association. Spiral bound (20 p.). ISBN 8389-6968-2.
Available from ALA. $4.50.
Guidelines for a Database
Search Guide. 1987. American Library Association, Reference and Adult Services
Division. 3 p. Published in RQ (Summer 1987): 341-343.
The Impact of Computerization
on Archival Finding Aids: A RAMP Study. 1991. Christopher Kitching; Unesco.
Paper (69 p.). PGI 91\WS\16. Information on ordering
Introduction to Archival
Automation: A RAMP Study with Guidelines. 1986. Michael Cook; Unesco. Paper.
PGI-86\WS\15. Information on ordering Unesco documents.
Online Training Sessions:
Suggested Guidelines. 1981. American Library Association, Reference and
Adult Services Division. 5 p. Published in RQ (Summer 1981): 353-357.
Remote Access to Online Catalogs. 1988. Association of Research Libraries. ARL Spec Kit 142. Paper (116 p.). Out of print.
1 This account is summarized from Trudy Grieb Reusser, "OSI: A Brief Historical Perspective," Library Hi Tech 4:3, consecutive issue 32 (1990): 13-14.
2 National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action (Washington, DC: NCLIS, 1975).
3 The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) began in 1971, the Western Library Network in 1974, and RLIN (in the form of its precursor, BALLOTS) in 1975.
4 Network Technical Architecture Group, Message Delivery Systems for the National Library and Information Service Network: General Requirements (1978).
5 Sally H. McCallum, "Linked Systems Project in the United States," IFLA Journal 11 (1985): 313.
6 The implementation of Z39.50 is an ongoing effort led by the Z39.50 Implementors' Group (ZIG). Reports on the activities of the ZIG appear regularly in Information Standards Quarterly.
7 The introduction to Chapter 6, Authority Control, contains additional information on NACO.
8 Henriette Avram and Beacher Wiggins, "The Linked Systems Project: Introduction and Background," in The Linked Systems Project: A Networking Tool for Libraries, eds. Judith G. Fenly and Beacher Wiggins (Dublin, OH: OCLC, 1988), 5.
9 Charles M. Dollar and Thomas E. Weir, Jr., "Archival Administration, Records Management, and Computer Data Exchange Standards: An Intersection of Practice," in A Sourcebook of Standards Information, eds. Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991), 199.
10 The best current summary of archival efforts in the area of electronic records is Terry Cook, "Easy to Byte, Harder to Chew: The Second Generation of Electronic Records Archives," Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991-92): 202-216.
Other recent publications that specifically address the application of OSI standards for archival management of electronic records include:
David Bearman, ed., Archival Management of Electronic Records, Archives and Museum Informatics Technical Report no. 13 (Pittsburgh: Archives and Museum Informatics, 1991).
Charles M. Dollar and Thomas E. Weir, Jr., "Archival Administration, Records Management, and Computer Data Exchange Standards: An Intersection of Practice," in A Sourcebook of Standards Information, eds. Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991), 191-211.
John McDonald, "Data and Document Interchange Standards: A View from the National Archives of Canada," in A Sourcebook of Standards Information, eds. Stephen M. Spivak and Keith A. Winsell (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991), 231-239.
National Archives and Records Administration, Archival Research and Evaluation Staff, A National Archives Strategy for the Development and Implementation of Standards for the Creation, Transfer, Access, and Long-Term Storage of Electronic Records of the Federal Government, Technical Information Paper no. 8 (Washington: NARA, June 1990);
United Nations, Advisory Committee for the Co-ordination of Information Systems (ACCIS), Management of Electronic Records: Issues and Guidelines (New York: United Nations, 1990).
United Nations, Advisory Committee for the Co-ordination of Information Systems (ACCIS), Strategic Issues for Electronic Records Management: Towards Open Systems Interconnection (New York: United Nations, 1992).
Victoria Irons Walch, "The Role of Standards in the Archival Management of Electronic Records," American Archivist 53 (Winter 1990): 30-43.
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for Archival Description: A Handbook
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