Standards for Archival Description: A Handbook
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APPENDIX B: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG STANDARDS


Standards are interrelated in many ways and the complexity and variety of these interrelationships can be difficult to sort out. This appendix is an attempt to clarify some of the connections among standards through tables that illustrate three of the four types of relationships.

Equivalents. Table B-1 contains a list of U.S. national standards and their equivalents at the international level. When applicable, it also lists equivalent standards adopted by the U.S. federal government and selected equivalent national standards in other countries (particularly Canada and the U.K.).

"Equivalent" standards in each of these contexts may not necessarily be identical to one another; in fact, few are. But all of those listed here are more alike than not; more important, their developers intended them to serve the same functions and often acknowledge their close connections to the equivalent standards in other contexts.

Most of the standards listed in Table B-1 are technical standards emanating from formal standards developing organizations. A few are widely used library-based standards like the MARC formats.

Many of these standards evolved concurrently with their equivalents and the individual experts from each nation often participated in the development at the international level. Sometimes one of the national standards came first and served as a model for the international standard. In other cases, an international standard provided the impetus for the development of a national one. The variations that occur between international and national standards are usually outcomes of making small alterations to accommodate cultural or linguistic factors unique to a specific country.

The U.S. government often adopts U.S. national standards for its own use, especially in the data processing area. These are known as Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS). In some cases, the "FIPS Pubs," as they are commonly known, do not contain any substantive standards text, but merely state that the government has formally accepted a particular U.S. standard. In other cases, the FIPS Pub contains the full text of a standard (as for some code lists), whereas the U.S. national equivalent only contains the rules for constructing the standard.

FIPS can have influence far beyond the federal government because of the government's dominance in the marketplace as a major purchaser of data processing equipment and software. Federal procurement regulations require vendors to meet FIPS specifications so they are often built in to products that are sold in turn to the general population.

Implementations. Table B-2 contains entries for several standards from which others were derived that address specific needs in a particular application or professional context. In other words, a specific user group took the basic framework established in a general standard and developed a specific "implementation" that usually is much more detailed.

Adaptations. Much of the work that has occurred over the last two decades toward developing archival descriptive standards has involved the analysis and adaptation of standards from other fields to meet the needs of archivists. Most of the standards adapted in this way have come from the library profession.

Interdependent. A fourth way in which standards are related is when one specifies that another standard must be used for a particular purpose. For instance, the draft of ICA's General International Standard Archival Description (ISAD(G)) calls for institution codes to be derived by using the two-letter country code from ISO 3166. The USMARC Format for Bibliographic Description contains many similar specifications. Unfortunately, the number and complexity of these dependencies are too great to reduce to tabular format. Instead, considerable effort has been made to indicate these relationships (as well as the other three described above) within the entries for each standard in the main text of the handbook.


TABLE B-1: U.S. NATIONAL STANDARDS AND THEIR INTERNATIONAL EQUIVALENTS

Note: Preferred standards for use in U.S. applications are indicated by shading.

U.S. NATIONAL STANDARDS
(arranged by standard number)

EQUIVALENT
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

OTHER EQUIVALENT STANDARDS


AIIM TR2-1992. Glossary of Imaging Technology.

ISO 6196. Micrographics--Vocabulary [parts 1-7]

ANSI X3.4-1986. American National Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

ISO/IEC 646:1991. Information processing--ISO 7-bit coded character set for information processing

FIPS Pub 1-2

ANSI X3.26-1980. Hollerith Punched Card Code

FIPS Pub 14-1

ANSI X3.30-1985. Representation for Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for Information Interchange

ISO 8601:1988. Data elements and interchange formats--Information interchange--Representation of dates and times

FIPS Pub 4-1

ANSI X3.31-1988. Codes--Structure for the Identification of the Counties and County Equivalents of the United States and its Outlying and Associated Areas for Information Interchange

FIPS Pub 6-4

ANSI X3.38-1988. Codes--Identification of the States, the District of Columbia, and the Outlying and Associated Areas of the United States for Information Interchange

FIPS Pub 5-2

ANSI X3.41-1990. Code Extension Techniques for Use with the 7-Byte Coded Character Set of ASCII

ISO 2022:1986. Information processing--ISO 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets--Code extension techniques

FIPS Pub 1-2

ANSI X3.43-1986. Representation of Local Time of the Day for Information Interchange

ISO 8601:1988. Data elements and interchange formats--Information interchange--Representation of dates and times

FIPS Pub 58-1

ANSI X3.47-1988. Codes--Structure and Data Requirements for the Identification of Named Populated Places, Primary County Divisions, and Other Locational Entities of the United States and its Outlying and Associated Areas for Information Interchange

FIPS Pub 55DC-4

ANSI X3.61-1986. Representation of Geographic Point Locations for Information Interchange

ISO 6709:1983. Standard representation of latitude, longitude, and altitude for geographic point locations

FIPS Pub 70-1

Universal Transverse Mercator Grid (US Army)

ANSI X3.138-1988. Information systems--Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS)

Draft under development in JTC 1

FIPS Pub 156

ANSI/NISO Z39.2-1985. Information Interchange

ISO 2709:1981. Documentation--Format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape

BS 4748 (U.K.)

ANSI Z39.4-1984. Basic Criteria for Indexes

ISO 999-1975. Documentation--Index of a publication

ANSI Z39.7-1983. Library Statistics

ISO 2789:1991. Information and documentation--International library statistics

ANSI/NISO Z39.9-1992. International Standard Serial Numbering

See Table B-2, Implementations

ANSI Z39.10-1971 (R1977). Directories of Libraries and Information Centers

ISO 2146:1988. Documentation--Directories of libraries, archives, information and documentation centres, and their data bases

ANSI Z39.11-1972 (R1983). System for the Romanization of Japanese.

ISO 3602:1989. Documentation--Romanization of Japanese (kana script)

LC Romanization Tables

ANSI Z39.12-1972 (R1984). System for the Romanization of Arabic

ISO 233:1984. Documentation--Transliteration of Arabic characters into Latin characters

LC Romanization Tables

ANSI Z39.14-1979 (R1987). Writing Abstracts

ISO 214:1976. Documentation--Abstracts for publications and documentation

ANSI Z39.15-1980. Title Leaves of a Book

ISO 1086:1991. Information and documentation--Title leaves of a book

ANSI Z39.19-1980. Guidelines for Thesaurus Structure, Construction, and Use

ISO 2788:1986. Documentation--Guidelines for the establishment and development of monolingual thesauri

ISO 5964:1985. Documentation--Guidelines for the establishment and development of multilingual thesauri

ANSI/NISO Z39.21-1988. Book Numbering

See Table B-2, Implementations

ANSI Z39.24-1976. System for the Romanization of Slavic Cyrillic Characters

ISO 9:1986. Documentation--Transliteration of Slavic Cyrillic characters into Latin characters

LC Romanization Tables

ANSI Z39.25-1975. Romanization of Hebrew

ISO 259:1984. Documentation--Transliteration of Hebrew characters into Latin characters

LC Romanization Tables

ANSI Z39.27-1984 [withdrawn]. Structure for the Representation of Names of Countries, Dependencies, and Areas of Special Sovereignty for Information Interchange

ANSI/NISO/ISO 3166:1988. Codes for the representation of names of countries

FIPS Pub 104-1

ANSI Z39.32-1981. Information on Microfiche Headings

ISO 5123:1984. Documentation--Headers for microfiche of monographs and serials

ANSI Z39.35-1979. System for the Romanization of Lao, Khmer, and Pali

LC Romanization Tables

ANSI Z39.37-1979. System for the Romanization of Armenian

LC Romanization Tables

ANSI/NISO Z39.41-1990. Printed Information on Spines

ISO 6357:1985. Documentation--Spine titles on books and other publications

ANSI Z39.47-1985. Extended Latin Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Use (ANSEL)

ISO 5426:1983. Extension of the Latin alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

ALA Extended ASCII (used by LC for MARC)

ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1992. Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications

ISO 10162:1992. Information and documentation--Open Systems Interconnection--Search and retrieve application service definition

ISO 10163:1993. Information and documentation--Open Systems Interconnection--Search and retrieve application protocol specification--Part 1: Protocol specification

ANSI Z39.53-1987. Codes for the Representation of Languages for Information Interchange

ISO 639:1988. Code for the representation of names of languages

USMARC Code List for Languages

ANSI/NISO Z39.58-1992. Common Command Language for On-line Information Retrieval

ISO 8777 (under development)

See Table B-2, Implementations

ISO 8879:1986. Information processing--Text and office systems--Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

FIPS Pub 152

USMARC Format for Bibliographic Description

UNIMARC

UKMARC

CANMARC

LCMARC


TABLE B-2: STANDARDS WITH IMPLEMENTATIONS

STANDARD ON WHICH
IMPLEMENTATIONS ARE BASED

IMPLEMENTATIONS


ANSI Z39.19-1980. Guidelines for Thesaurus Structure, Construction, and Use

Art and Architecture Thesaurus

Descriptive Terms for Graphic Materials: Genre and Physical Characteristic Headings

Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials: Topical Terms for Subject Access

Medical Subject Headings

Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms

RBMS Thesauri for Use in Rare Books and Special Collections Cataloging

ISO 7498. Information processing systems--Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1992. Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications

ISO 10160

ISO 10161

ISO 10162

ISO 10163

ISO 2709:1981 Documentation--Format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape and ANSI Z39.2 Bibliographic Information Interchange

USMARC Formats for Bibliographic Description, Authority Data, Holdings Data, and Classification Data (which in turn are implemented by LCMARC, RLIN MARC, and OCLC MARC, among others)

UNIMARC

Common Communication Format (CCF)

ANSI X3.41-1990. Code Extension Techniques for Use with the 7-Byte Coded Character Set of ASCII

ANSI Z39.47-1985. Extended Latin Alphabet Coded Character Set for Bibliographic Use (ANSEL).

ANSI Z39.64-1989. East Asian Character Code for Bibliographic Use (EACC)

ALA Extended ASCII

ISO 2108:1992. Documentation--International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN)

ANSI Z39.21-1988. Book Numbering

ISO 3297:1986. Documentation--International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN)

ANSI/NISO Z39.9-1992. International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN)

ISO 8879:1986. Information processing--Text and office systems--Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1988. Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup


TABLE B-3: LIBRARY STANDARDS ADAPTED TO ARCHIVAL PRACTICE

ORIGINAL LIBRARY-BASED STANDARD

ARCHIVAL EQUIVALENT


USMARC Format for Bibliographic Description

USMARC Format for Archival and Manuscripts Control (USMARC AMC)

USMARC Format for Visual Materials (USMARC VM)

Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2)

Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts: A Cataloging Manual for Archival Repositories, Historical Societies, and Manuscripts Libraries (APPM)

Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections (GIHC)

Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloging Manual (AMIM)

ISBD(G): General International Standard Bibliographic Description

ISAD(G): General International Standard Archival Description [draft]




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Standards for Archival Description: A Handbook
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